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Omega-3s and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

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References

  1. Brasky TM, Darke AK, Song X, et al. Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk in the SELECT Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. Jul 10 2013.
  2. Harris WS, Von Schacky C. The Omega-3 Index: a new risk factor for death from coronary heart disease? Prev Med.  2004;39(1):212-220.
  3. Brasky TM, Kristal AR, Navarro SL, et al. Specialty supplements and prostate cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(4):573-582.
  4. Szymanski KM, Wheeler DC, Mucci LA. Fish consumption and prostate cancer risk: a review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr.  2010;92(5): 1223-1233.
  5. Fradet V, Cheng I, Casey G, Witte JS. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids, cyclooxygenase-2 genetic variation, and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(7):2559-2566.
  6. Terry P, Lichtenstein P, Feychting M, Ahlbom A, Wolk A. Fatty fish consumption and risk of prostate cancer. Lancet.  2001;357(9270):1764-1766.
  7. Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, et al. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr.  2004; 80(1):204-216.
  8. Mina K, Fritschi L, Johnson KC. An inverse association between preserved fish nd prostate cancer: results from a population-based case-control study in Canada. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):222-226.
  9. Epstein MM, Kasperzyk JL, Mucci LA, et al. Dietary fatty acid intake and prostate cancer survival in Orebro County, Sweden. Am J Epidemiol.  2012;176(3):240-252.
  10. Albert CM, Campos H, Stampfer MJ, et al. Blood levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of sudden death. N Engl J Med.  2002;346(15): 1113-1118.
  11. Sekikawa A, Curb JD, Ueshima H, et al. Marine-derived n-3 fatty acids and atherosclerosis in Japanese, Japanese-American, and white men: a cross-sectional study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52(6):417-424.
  12. Sekikawa A, Ueshima H, Kadowaki T, et al. Less subclinical atherosclerosis in Japanese men in Japan than in White men in the United States in the post-World War II birth cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(6): 617-624.
  13. Zhang J, Sasaki S, Amano K, Kesteloot H. Fish consumption and mortality from all causes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke: an ecological study. Prev Med. 1999;28(5):520-529.
  14. Wynder EL, Fujita Y, Harris RE, Hirayama T, Hiyama T. Comparative epidemiology of cancer between the United States and Japan. A second look. Cancer. 1991;67(3):746-763.
  15. Dewailly E, Mulvad G, Sloth Pedersen H, Hansen JC, Behrendt N, Hart Hansen JP. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(9):926-927.
  16. Prener A, Storm HH, Nielsen NH. Cancer of the male genital tract in Circumpolar Inuit. Acta Oncol. 1996;35(5):589-593.
  17. Sekikawa A, Kuller LH. Coronary heart disease mortality in the United States among black and white men 35-44 years old by state. CVD Prevention. 1999;2:212-221.
  18. Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet. 2007; 369(9567):1090-1098.
  19. Tanaka K, Ishikawa Y, Yokoyama M, et al. Reduction in the recurrence of stroke by eicosapentaenoic acid for hypercholesterolemic patients: subanalysis of the JELIS trial. Stroke. 2008;39(7):2052-2058.
  20. Xu H, Jiang HW, Ding GX, et al. Diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer risk of different grade or stage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013;99(3):241-249.


Disclosure: CJL and JHO have previously served as speakers and consultants to GlaxoSmithKline. JHO is the Chief Medical Officer and Founder of CardioTabs, a nutraceutical company that sells products containing omega-3. 

 

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