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What Types of Emergencies May A...

What Types of Emergencies May Arise Due to Diabetes?
What is hypoglycemia?
Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when blood glucose drops below normal levels. Glucose, an important source of energy for the body, comes from food. Carbohydrates are the main dietary source of glucose. Rice, potatoes, bread, tortillas, cereal, milk, fruit, and sweets are all carbohydrate-rich foods.

 

 

After a meal, glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream and carried to the body’s cells. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps the cells use glucose for energy. If a person takes in more glucose than the body needs at the time, the body stores the extra glucose in the liver and muscles in a form called glycogen. The body can use glycogen for energy between meals. Extra glucose can also be changed to fat and stored in fat cells. Fat can also be used for energy.

 

 

When blood glucose begins to fall, glucagon—another hormone made by the pancreas—signals the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the bloodstream. Blood glucose will then rise toward a normal level. In some people with diabetes, this glucagon response to hypoglycemia is impaired and other hormones such as epinephrine, also called adrenaline, may raise the blood glucose level. But with diabetes treated with insulin or pills that increase insulin production, glucose levels can’t easily return to the normal range.

 

 

Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly. It is usually mild and can be treated quickly and easily by eating or drinking a small amount of glucose-rich food. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can get worse and cause confusion, clumsiness, or fainting. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, coma, and even death.

 

 

In adults and children older than 10 years, hypoglycemia is uncommon except as a side effect of diabetes treatment. Hypoglycemia can also result, however, from other medications or diseases, hormone or enzyme deficiencies, or tumors.

 

 

What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia?

 

Hypoglycemia causes symptoms such as

  • hunger
  • shakiness
  • nervousness
  • sweating
  • dizziness or light-headedness
  • sleepiness
  • confusion
  • difficulty speaking
  • anxiety
  • weakness

Hypoglycemia can also happen during sleep. Some signs of hypoglycemia during sleep include

  • crying out or having nightmares
  • finding pajamas or sheets damp from perspiration
  • feeling tired, irritable, or confused after waking up
What is hyperglycemia?
Hyperglycemia mean higher than normal (hyper) levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Normal fasting blood sugar is between 70 -110 mg/dl. However, high sugar levels can be seen immediately following meals. Hyperglycemia can be a sign of undiagnosed or uncontrolled diabetes. The signs of hyperglycemia include increased urine, thirst, hunger, dry-itchy skin, and fatigue.
What is Ketoacidosis?
Diabetic ketoacidosis is severe, out-of-control diabetes (high blood sugar) that needs emergency treatment. This happens when blood sugar levels get too high. The body starts using stored fat for energy, and ketone bodies (acids) build up in the blood.
Ketoacidosis starts slowly and builds up. The signs include nausea and vomiting, which can lead to loss of water from the body, stomach pain,and deep and rapid breathing. Other signs are a flushed face, dry skin and mouth, a fruity breath odor, a rapid and weak pulse, and low blood pressure. If the person is not given fluids and insulin right away, ketoacidosis can lead to coma and even death

 

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Start Date
Jun 26, 2009
by darrensv1
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by darrensv1