Your question basically pertains to what doctors call "Cancer Screening". This refers to the performance of some tests in healthy people in order to detect cancer, if at all present, at an earlier stage than would be possible if it were allowed to grow and manifest itself with symptoms and signs.
There are no good screening tests for blood cancers. Acute leukemias present with a short and turbulent history, so it is illogical to suspect this type of blood cancer in healthy people. Also, there is no significant "latent period" for this disease - ie when acute leukemia is present in the marrow or blood, yet patient has no symptoms.
A simple peripheral blood smear examination would be able to detect chronic leukemia even in patients who have yet not developed any symptoms.
In young males, common cancers include blood, testes, brain, bone, etc. There are no recemmended screening tests for these. For older men, tests for colon cancer, prostate cancer, and perhaps lung cancer are advised.
The steps you can take to reduce your chances of cancer include abstaining from smoking, limiting alcohol intake, eating a low calorie and low fat diet, avoiding red meat, eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, exercising, maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding viral diseases like HPV etc.
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