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I need information about how my first diagnosis of personality disorder, became a diagnosis of schizophrenia. I have a case pending through the veterans affairs office in Waco Texas. I need medical evidence that shows that a diagnosis of personality is a begining stage of schizophrenia? Can Ypu help me please? Darin Ross
No one has personality as a disorder. A personality disorder is a description that can be characterized as…
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Personality disorder… is a class of mental disorders characterized by rigid and on-going patterns of thought and action (Cognitive modules). The underlying belief systems informing these patterns are referred to as fixed fantasies. The inflexibility and pervasiveness of these behavioral patterns often cause serious personal and social difficulties, as well as a general impairment of functioning.
Personality disorders are defined by the American Psychiatric Association as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it". These patterns, as noted, are inflexible and pervasive across many situations, due in large part to the fact that such behavior is ego-syntonic (i.e., the patterns are consistent with the ego integrity of the individual), and therefore, perceived to be appropriate by that individual. The onset of these patterns of behavior can typically be traced back to the beginning of adulthood, and, in rare instances, early adolescence.
General diagnostic criteria
Diagnosis of a personality disorder must satisfy the following general criteria in addition to the specific criteria listed under the specific personality disorder under consideration.
A. Experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. This pattern is manifested in two (or more) of the following areas:
• cognition (perception and interpretation of self, others and events)
• affect (the range, intensity, lability, and appropriateness of emotional response)
• interpersonal functioning
• impulse control
B. The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations.
C. The enduring pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
D. The pattern is stable and of long duration and its onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or early adulthood.
E. The enduring pattern is not better accounted for as a manifestation or consequence of another mental disorder.
F. The enduring pattern is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition such as head injury.
People under 18 years old who fit the criteria of a personality disorder are usually not diagnosed with such a disorder, although they may be diagnosed with a related disorder. In order to diagnose an individual under the age of 18 with a personality disorder, symptoms must be present for at least one year. Antisocial personality disorder, by definition, cannot be diagnosed at all in persons under 18.
List of personality disorders defined in the DSM
The DSM-IV lists ten personality disorders, grouped into three clusters. The DSM also contains a category for behavioral patterns that do not match these ten disorders, but nevertheless exhibit characteristics of a personality disorder. This category is labeled Personality Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified).
Cluster A (odd or eccentric disorders)
• Paranoid personality disorder
• Schizoid personality disorder
• Schizotypal personality disorder
Cluster C (anxious or fearful disorders)
• Avoidant personality disorder
• Dependent personality disorder (not the same as Dysthymia)
• Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (not the same as Obsessive-compulsive disorder)
Schizophrenia is a severe, lifelong brain disorder. People who have it may hear voices, see things that aren't there or believe that others are reading or controlling their minds. In men, symptoms usually start in the late teens and early 20s. They include hallucinations, or seeing things, and delusions such as hearing voices. For women, they start in the mid-20s to early 30s. Other symptoms include
• Unusual thoughts or perceptions
• Disorders of movement
• Difficulty speaking and expressing emotion
• Problems with attention, memory and organization
No one is sure what causes schizophrenia, but your genetic makeup and brain chemistry probably play a role. Medicines can relieve many of the symptoms, but it can take several tries before you find the right drug. You can reduce relapses by staying on your medicine for as long as your doctor recommends. With treatment, many people improve enough to lead satisfying lives.
National Institute of Mental Health
Schizophrenia: First Warning Signs
Below is a list of warning signs that suggest the onset of schizophrenia. It was developed by families who have a member with schizophrenia. Some of the behavior is within the range of normal responses to situations. However, families felt that even with the mildest of symptoms there was a vague, yet distinct, awareness that the behavior was "unusual".
Social withdrawal was observed by everyone. Most commented that their relative had been a "good person, never causing any trouble". Seldom had the person been socially "outgoing" during the formative years.
• Excessive fatigue and sleepiness or an inability to sleep
• Social withdrawal, isolation and reclusiveness
• Deterioration of social relationships
• Inability to concentrate or cope with minor problems
• Apparent indifference, even in highly important situations
• Dropping out of activities (skipping classes)
• Decline in academic and athletic performance
• Deterioration of personal hygiene; eccentric dress
• Frequent moves or trips or long walks leading nowhere
• Drug or alcohol abuse
• Undue preoccupation with spiritual or religious matters
• Bizarre behaviour
• Inappropriate laughter
• Strange posturing
• Low tolerance to irritation
• Excessive writing without apparent meaning
• Inability to express emotion
• Irrational statements
• Peculiar use of words or language structure
• Conversation that seems deep but is not logical or coherent
• Staring; vagueness
• Unusual sensitivity to stimuli (noise, light)
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