Dandruff is caused by the shedding of tiny flakes of dead skin from the scalp. This skin shedding is part of a normal process which occurs all over the body. It is usually more apparent in the hair because the flakes can accumulate there. Dandruff is just an exaggeration of this process on the scalp, and its cause is unknown.
It presents as a very itchy scalp, and excessive tiny white flakes of dead skin are visible in the hair and on clothing. Scratching the scalp may make it red and sore.
Dandruff can usually be controlled by washing the hair daily with a medicated shampoo, containing seleniun sulfide or zinc pyrithione.
The child's hair should be brushed well before shampooing, to remove as many dead flakes of skin as possible. Initially everyday shampooing may be required. As the scalp begins to clear you can bring it down to twice a week. If the scales disappear, you can stop using the medicated shampoos.
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