Healthy diet is high in unprocessed and minimally processed foods. This means you will eat lean meats in moderation, plenty of green and brightly colored veges, moderate whole grain cereals, some fruits - but stay away or limit portions of very sweet fruits, nuts, some dairy, healthy fats / oils.
Bad carbs could be considered those white carbs that break down quickly. This includes bread, white rice, cookies, candies etc.
Good carbs are those that break down slowly - whole grains, brown rice, oatmeal, etc..
If you can monitor your blood sugars after eating you will also discover which foods raise your blood sugar and also learn to avoid / limit those foods.
It is not just what you eat, but also how much. Once piece of candy isn't going to cause a big rise in blood sugar, but a whole bag can be serious. Even 'healthy' foods should be consumed in moderation - particularly those which will have big impact on blood sugar (this in particular refers to fruits, which are extremely healthy and should be part of your daily diet, but in small portions).
Exercise is also central to management of diabetes. if you can take a walk or do some exercise after every meal that would be idea. But at least moderate exercise for minimum of 30 minutes every day would be a good start.
To add to Super_sally's comments go to this link for an understanding of Glycemic Index. Foods that are high on the GI raise glucose levels.
Careful on the candy, everyone is different. For me, as a type 2, one piece would jack my glucose levels way up. I just avoid anything sugar.
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