Patients of multiple sclerosis may suffer from many neurological symptoms or signs that include changes in sensation- paresthesia, muscle weakness, muscle spasms or difficulty in moving, difficulty with coordination and balance, problems in speech or swallowing, visual problems, fatigue, acute or chronic muscular pain, and bladder and bowel difficulties. Symptoms of depression or unstable mood and cognitive impairment are also common. The most commonly used diagnostic tools are neuroimaging or MRI and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. MRI of the brain and spine shows areas of demyelination (lesions or plaques). Gadolinium dye is usually administered intravenously as a contrast to highlight active plaques. Testing of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from a lumbar puncture can provide evidence of chronic inflammation of the central nervous system. Hope this helps you. Take care and regards!
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