Hi, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, also known as allergic purpura and commonly abbreviated to HSP, is a systemic vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) characterized by deposition of immune complexes containing the antibody IgA in the skin and kidney. It occurs mainly in young children.
Typical symptoms include palpable purpura (small hemorrhages in the skin), joint pains and abdominal pain. Most cases are self-limiting and require no treatment apart from symptom control, but the disease may relapse in a third of the cases and cause irreversible kidney damage in about one in a hundred cases. The exact cause of Henoch-Schönlein purpura is unknown, although it may occur after certain viral and bacterial infections, as well as an adverse drug reaction to some medications.
Multiple sclerosis (abbreviated MS, also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is an autoimmune condition in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system (CNS), leading to demyelination. It may cause numerous physical and mental symptoms, and often progresses to physical and cognitive disability. MS affects the areas of the brain and spinal cord known as the white matter. White matter cells carry signals between the grey matter areas, where the processing is done, and the rest of the body. More specifically, MS destroys oligodendrocytes which are the cells responsible for creating and maintaining a fatty layer, known as the myelin sheath, which helps the neurons carry electrical signals. MS results in a thinning or complete loss of myelin and, less frequently, the cutting (transection) of the neuron's extensions or axons
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, sometimes called Maladie de Charcot, or Lou Gehrig's Disease (US)) is a progressive, usually fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons, the nerve cells in the central nervous system that control voluntary muscle movement. As a motor neuron disease, the disorder causes muscle weakness and atrophy throughout the body as both the upper and lower motor neurons degenerate, ceasing to send messages to muscles. Unable to function, the muscles gradually weaken, develop fasciculations (twitches) because of denervation, and eventually atrophy because of that denervation. The patient may ultimately lose the ability to initiate and control all voluntary movement except of the eyes.
HSP is self limiting disease but MS and ALS requires treatment for long period of time and are associated with problems involving nervous system. Blood tests are not specific for HSP, tests may show elevated creatinine and urea levels (in kidney involvement), raised IgA levels (in about 50%), and raised C-reactive protein (CRP) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) results; none are specific for Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
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