# The uterus is made of hard and strong muscle. A uterine myoma is a hard benign growth that forms on this muscle layer. Most myomas form on the corpus uteri, but occasionally they form around the cervical duct. Myomas are not found in teenagers, but the incidence rate increases with age as women enter their 20s, 30s, and 40s. The rate also increases among women who have pregnancies later in life, or women who had an uneventful first pregnancy, but whose second pregnancy is marked by the discovery of a myoma.
# A myoma can be a cause of infertility in women who previously had a successful pregnancy but several years later are unable to conceive. If the myoma interferes with conception, a myomectomy is performed. Many women do become pregnant after this surgery.
# Usually, a myoma will not interfere with a pregnancy; as the fact that a woman is pregnant with a myoma, means that the myoma is small. Generally, when a myoma becomes larger, the amount of menstruation increases and cramps become severe. This is especially true in the case of myoma uteri submucosa, myomas that form on the inside of the uterus. This type of myoma can cause infertility or miscarriage.
# If a woman is somehow pregnant and a large myoma is present, the myoma can cause abnormalities with the position of the fetus. Normally after 30 weeks into pregnancy, the fetus is positioned head down, but if a myoma interferes, the baby can be reversed. This can be detected early using ultrasound. Although the placenta and fetus may be in normal positions, a cesarean section is done if a myoma interferes with natural birth.
Sometimes it is discovered during early prenatal examinations that the ovaries are swollen. But most of the time this indicates a luteal cyst. Despite the presence of a luteal cyst, the ovaries almost never grow larger than 6 cm, and around the 4th month when the placenta is complete, the cyst should shrink. No special treatment is necessary when a luteal cyst is diagnosed by ultrasound or other methods.
# Surgery is only necessary when a cyst grows larger than 6 cm, and when complications like torsion or rupture occur.
# Surgery does not affect the baby.
After the 4th month, when the placenta is complete, the problematic ovary is removed. By this time, hormones needed to continue pregnancy are secreted from the placenta. After childbirth, ovulation occurs regularly every month so pregnancy is possible again. Generally, surgery does not cause miscarriages or premature births.
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