The short answer is no, it does not mean lung cancer. From Wikipedia:
These comprise of 98 % vessels, mainly veins. Respiratory passages are not visible as these contain air. Normal shadows start from hila pass through proximal 1/3rd traverse to middle 1/3rd and just reach the border of distal third. Normaly markings are greatest in the medial part of lower zone. To say whether increased or not basically, in the opinion of Dr Tarar, it is an eyeball technique. With the experience your start saying this is increased or this is normal.
This always means either Infection in respiratory passages or fluid overload. Infection may be acute or chronic. If radiologist reports increased bronchovascular markings but clinical situation is not supporting any thing it can be ignored and film should be taken as normal.
In cardiac failure cases so called reversal of pattern of markings occur. There is increase in markings in midzones due to fluid overload. Actually this is not reversal. This is only increase in midzones.
In chronic bronchitis markings are increased. In emphysema these are decreased in hyperinflated areas. In collapse of the lungs beyond the line-demarcating lung, these must be absent.
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