It may be possible that in the chronically distended bladder, it may be able to hold more than 500mL. The amount of urine it takes before kidney damage occurs would be patient dependent. It is true that the neurogenicity of the bladder would increase the risk of UTIs.
One consideration would be a permanent catheter (i.e. a suprapubic catheter) - which would remove the need for self-catheterization.
Checking the kidney function via blood tests can also be considered.
These options can be discussed with your urologist.
Followup with your personal physician is essential.
This answer is not intended as and does not substitute for medical advice - the information presented is for patient education only. Please see your personal physician for further evaluation of your individual case.
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