There is no way to tell for sure but the most common cause would be a corneal arcus. This is an aging change in the peripheral retina. If your age is 42 it can be associated with high blood levels of cholesterol.
You need to see an Eye MD ophthalmologist for a definitive diagnosis. you should have your personal physician do a "fasting lipid profile&q...
It could but its not likely. About 10% of people have small differences in the size of their pupils (aneisocoria) from birth. Acquired aneisocoria requires a work up to see if their is a cause.
you should see an ophthalmologist. If possible a neuro-ophthalmologist. You need to take in 5-8 pictures of your face that allow an assessment of the pupil size...
Your child should be under the care of a pediatric ophthalmologist as this problem requires special training and practice focus. Likely at some point that dermoid will need to be removed. It is not likely a MRI is needed at this point.
At your age it is unlikely that medical school or post graduates studies have a bearing on your high myopia progression.
You can do a literature search on progress in myopia research. You can also use the search feature and archives and read other peoples experience with high myopia, progressive myopia and pathologic myopia.
I can't answer all the things you asked authoritatively so I will not answer some aspects. You can do serious damage putting water in the inside of the eye. Solutions inside the eye are called balanced salt solutions. On the surface of the eye some solutions/ointments are hypertonic to pull fluid out of the cornea example Muro 128 hypertonic most arti...
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