Heart Disease

Information, Symptoms, Treatments and Resources


Matters of the Heart: Cardiovascular Disease in American Women



  1. National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Incidence and Prevalence: 2006 Chart Book on Cardiovascular and Lung Diseases.  Bethesda, Md: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2006.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of stroke: United States, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56:469-474.
  3. Carandang R, Seshadri S, Beiser A, Kelly-Hayes M, Kase CS, Kannel WB, Wolf PA. Trends in incidence, lifetime risk, severity, and 30-day mortality of stroke over the past 50 years. JAMA. 2006;296:2939-2946.
  4. Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R, Carnethon M, De Simone G, Ferguson B, Flegal K. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2009 Update. Circulation 2009;119:e21-e181.
  5. Rosamond W, Flegal K, Furie K et al.  Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2008 Update:  A Report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee.  Circulation.  2008:117(4), e25-e146.
  6. Loria CM, Liu K, Lewis CE, et al. Early adult risk factors levels and subsequent coronary artery calcification. The CARDIA Study.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49(20):2013-2020.
  7. Mosca L, Banka C,Benjamin E, et al.  Evidence-Based Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women:  2007 Update.  Circulation. 2007;1481-1501.
  8. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al.  Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.  National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee.  Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.  Hypertension.  2003;42:1206-1252.
  9. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults.  Executive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).  JAMA.  2001;285:2486-2497.
  10. Whang W, Kubzansky L, Kawachi I, et al.  Depression and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death and Coronary Heart Disease in Women.  J Am Coll Cardiol.  2009:(53)11.
  11. Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of past use of oral contraceptive agents and risk of cardiovascular diseases. N Engl J Med. 1988;319:1313-1317.
  12. ACOG practice bulletin No. 73: use of hormonal contraception in women with coexisting medical conditions.  Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:1453-1472. 
  13. Hully S, Grady D, Bush T, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women: Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. JAMA. 1998;280:605-613.
  14. Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291:1701-1712.


Disclosure: None reported.

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