Information, Symptoms, Treatments and Resources


Acute Migraines Relieved By Beta Blocker Eye Drops




  1. Buse, D. C., Manack, A. N., Fanning, K. M., Serrano, D., Reed, M. L., Turkel, C. C. and Lipton, R. B. Chronic Migraine Prevalence, Disability, and Sociodemographic Factors: Results From the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 2012; 52: 1456–1470
  2. Archibald N, Lipscomb J, McCrory DC. Resource Utilization and Costs of Care for Treatment of Chronic Headache. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1999 Feb. (Technical Reviews, No. 2.1.)
  3. Prusinsky A. Possibility of timolol use for immediate alleviation of Horton’s cluster headache. Preliminary report. Neurologia I Neurochirurgia Polska 1980;14(2):191-193
  4. Shapiro MK, Gorn R. The possible treatment of migraine with carteolol hydrochloride. Headache 1999(2):138-139
  5. Ishikawa H, Yoshihara M, Mizuki K, Kashima Y. A pediatric case of ophthalmoplegic migraine with recurrent oculomotor nerve palsy. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2000;44(5)576
  6. Shamliyan TA, Kane RL, Taylor FR. Migraine in adults: Preventive pharmacologic treatments. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 Apr. Report No.: 13-EHC068-EF.
  7. Zimmerman TJ, Kaufman HD. Timolol. A Beta-adrenergic blocking agent for the treatment of glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1977;95(4);601-604
  8. Banerjee M, Findley L. Propranolol in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Cephalalgia 11(4):193-196, 1991 Sept
  9. Nieminen T, Lehtimaki T, Maenpaa J, Ropo A, Uusitalo H, Kahonen. Ophthalmic timolol: Plasma concentration and systemic cardiopulmonary effects. Scand j Clin Lab Invest 2007;67:237-245
  10. Linda A. Hershey, MD, PhD and Edward M. Bednarczyk, PharmD. Treatment of Headache in the Elderly. Curr Treat Options Neurol. Feb 2013; 15(1): 56–62.
  11. Friedman BW, Garber L, Yoon A, Solorzano C, Wollowitz A, Esses D, Bijur PE, Gallagher EJ. Randomized trial of IV valproate vs metoclopramide vs ketorolac for acute migraine. Neurology. 2014 Mar 18;82(11):976-83.
  12. Bakhshayesh B, Seyed Saadat SM, Rezania K, Hatamian H, Hossieninezhad M. A randomized open-label study of sodium valproate vs sumatriptan and metoclopramide for prolonged migraine headache. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Mar;31(3):540-4
  13. Hsu DA, Stafstrom CE, Rowley HA, Kiff JE, Dulli DA. Hemiplegic migraine: hyperperfusion and abortive therapy with intravenous verapamil. Brain Dev. 2008 Jan;30(1):86-90
  14. Yu W, Horowitz SH. Treatment of sporadic hemiplegic migraine with calcium-channel blocker verapamil. Neurology. 2003 Jan 14;60(1):120-1
  15. Yoshiyuki O, Yasuhiko Y, Miyuki N, Makato A, Risa T. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Systemic Effect of Topically Applied Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Gelling Vehicle.  Curr Eye Res 30:319-328, 2005
  16. Pond SM, Tozer TN.  First-pass Elimination. Basic concepts and clinical consequences. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1984;1:1-25



Explore More In Our Hep C Learning Center
image description
What Is Hepatitis C?
Learn about this treatable virus.
image description
Diagnosing Hepatitis C
Getting tested for this viral infection.
image description
Just Diagnosed? Here’s What’s Next
3 key steps to getting on treatment.
image description
Understanding Hepatitis C Treatment
4 steps to getting on therapy.
image description
Your Guide to Hep C Treatments
What you need to know about Hep C drugs.
image description
Managing Side Effects of Treatment
How the drugs might affect you.
image description
Making Hep C Treatment a Success
These tips may up your chances of a cure.