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589870 tn?1222666787

Agoraphobia Is an Anxiety Disorder

Description of Agoraphobia: It is a fear and if treated will set you free of confinement meaning that going out doors or finding yourself in enclosed places will no longer be a need for a panic.

Panic Attacks or just temporary, "you" can overcome them.

A) Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult (or embarrassing) or in which help may not be available in the event of having an unexpected or situational predisposed Panic Attack or panic-like symptoms. Agoraphobic fears typically involve characteristic clusters of situations that include being outside the home alone; being in a crowd, or standing in a line; being on a bridge; and traveling in a bus, train, or automobile.

B) The situations are avoided (e.g., travel is restricted) or else are endured with marked distress or with anxiety about having a panic attack or panic-like symptoms, or require the presence of a companion.

C) The anxiety or phobic avoidance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as Social Phobia (e.g., avoidance limited to social situations because of fear of embarrassment), Specific Phobia (e.g., avoidance limited to a single situation like elevators), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (e.g., avoidance of dirt in someone with an obsession about contamination), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (e.g., avoidance of stimuli associated with a severe stressor), or Separation Anxiety Disorder (e.g., avoidance of leaving home or relatives).[19]

Association with panic attacks

Agoraphobia patients can experience sudden panic attacks when traveling to places where they fear they are out of control, help would be difficult to obtain, or they could be embarrassed. During a panic attack, epinephrine is released in large amounts, triggering the body's natural fight-or-flight response. A panic attack typically has an abrupt onset, building to maximum intensity within 10 to 15 minutes, and rarely lasts longer than 30 minutes. [20] Symptoms of a panic attack include palpitations, a rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, dizziness, tightness in the throat and shortness of breath. Many patients report a fear of dying or of losing control of emotions and/or behavior.

Treatments

Agoraphobia can be successfully treated in many cases through a very gradual process of graduated exposure therapy combined with cognitive therapy and sometimes anti-anxiety or antidepressant medications.Treatment options for agoraphobia and panic disorder are similar.
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589870 tn?1222666787
A panic attack is a sudden surge of overwhelming fear that comes without warning and without any obvious reason. It is far more intense than the feeling of being 'stressed out' that most people experience. Symptoms of a panic attack include:

    * racing heartbeat
    * difficulty breathing, feeling as though you 'can't get enough air'
    * terror that is almost paralyzing
    * dizziness, lightheadedness or nausea
    * trembling, sweating, shaking
    * choking, chest pains
    * hot flashes, or sudden chills
    * tingling in fingers or toes ('pins and needles')
    * fear that you're going to go crazy or are about to die

You probably recognize this as the classic 'flight or fight' response that human beings experience when we are in a situation of danger. But during a panic attack, these symptoms seem to rise from out of nowhere. They occur in seemingly harmless situations--they can even happen while you are asleep.

In addition to the above symptoms, a panic attack is marked by the following conditions:

    * it occurs suddenly, without any warning and without any way to stop it.
    * the level of fear is way out of proportion to the actual situation; often, in fact, it's completely unrelated.
    * it passes in a few minutes; the body cannot sustain the 'fight or flight' response for longer than that. However, repeated attacks can continue to recur for hours.

A panic attack is not dangerous, but it can be terrifying, largely because it feels 'crazy' and 'out of control.' Panic disorder is frightening because of the panic attacks associated with it, and also because it often leads to other complications such as phobias, depression, substance abuse, medical complications, even suicide. Its effects can range from mild word or social impairment to a total inability to face the outside world.

In fact, the phobias that people with panic disorder develop do not come from fears of actual objects or events, but rather from fear of having another attack. In these cases, people will avoid certain objects or situations because they fear that these things will trigger another attack.
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How to Identify Panic Disorder

Please remember that only a licensed therapist can diagnose a panic disorder. There are certain signs you may already be aware of, though.

One study found that people sometimes see 10 or more doctors before being properly diagnosed, and that only one out of four people with the disorder receive the treatment they need. That's why it's important to know what the symptoms are, and to make sure you get the right help.

Many people experience occasional panic attacks, and if you have had one or two such attacks, there probably isn't any reason to worry. The key symptom of panic disorder is the persistent fear of having future panic attacks. If you suffer from repeated (four or more) panic attacks, and especially if you have had a panic attack and are in continued fear of having another, these are signs that you should consider finding a mental health professional who specializes in panic or anxiety disorders.

What Causes Panic Disorder: Mind, Body, or Both?

Body: There may be a genetic predisposition to anxiety disorders; some sufferers report that a family member has or had a panic disorder or some other emotional disorder such as depression. Studies with twins have confirmed the possibility of 'genetic inheritance' of the disorder.

Panic Disorder could also be due to a biological malfunction, although a specific biological marker has yet to be identified.

All ethnic groups are vulnerable to panic disorder. For unknown reasons, women are twice as likely to get the disorder as men.

Mind: Stressful life events can trigger panic disorders. One association that has been noted is that of a recent loss or separation. Some researchers liken the 'life stressor' to a thermostat; that is, when stresses lower your resistance, the underlying physical predisposition kicks in and triggers an attack.

Both: Physical and psychological causes of panic disorder work together. Although initially attacks may come out of the blue, eventually the sufferer may actually help bring them on by responding to physical symptoms of an attack.

589870 tn?1222666787
taking a certain medication, they might interpret this as a symptom of an attack and , because of their anxiety, actually bring on the attack. On the other hand, coffee, exercise, and certain medications sometimes do, in fact, cause panic attacks. One of the most frustrating things for the panic sufferer is never knowing how to isolate the different triggers of an attack. That's why the right therapy for panic disorder focuses on all aspects -- physical, psychological, and physiological -- of the disorder.

Can People with Panic Disorder lead normal lives?

The answer to this is a resounding YES -- if they receive treatment.

Panic disorder is highly treatable, with a variety of available therapies. These treatments are extremely effective, and most people who have successfully completed treatment can continue to experience situational avoidance or anxiety, and further treatment might be necessary in those cases. Once treated, panic disorder doesn't lead to any permanent complications.

Side Effects of Panic Disorder

Without treatment, panic disorder can have very serious consequences.

The immediate danger with panic disorder is that it can often lead to a phobia. That's because once you've suffered a panic attack, you may start to avoid situations like the one you were in when the attack occurred.

Many people with panic disorder show 'situational avoidance' associated with their panic attacks. For example, you might have an attack while driving, and start to avoid driving until you develop an actual phobia towards it. In worst case scenarios, people with panic disorder develop agoraphobia -- fear of going outdoors -- because they believe that by staying inside, they can avoid all situations that might provoke an attack, or where they might not be able to get help. The fear of an a
589870 tn?1222666787
The fear of an attack is so debilitating, they prefer to spend their lives locked inside their homes.

Even if you don't develop these extreme phobias, your quality of life can be severely damaged by untreated panic disorder. A recent study showed that people who suffer from panic disorder:

    * are more prone to alcohol and other drug abuse
    * have greater risk of attempting suicide
    * spend more time in hospital emergency rooms
    * spend less time on hobbies, sports and other satisfying activities
    * tend to be financially dependent on others
    * report feeling emotionally and physically less healthy than non-sufferers.
    * are afraid of driving more than a few miles away from home

Panic disorders can also have economic effects. For example, a recent study cited the case of a woman who gave up a $40,000 a year job that required travel for one close to home that only paid $14,000 a year. Other sufferers have reported losing their jobs and having to rely on public assistance or family members.

None of this needs to happen. Panic disorder can be treated successfully, and sufferers can go on to lead full and satisfying lives.

How Can Panic Disorder Be Treated?

Most specialists agree that a combination of cognitive and behavioral therapies are the best treatment for panic disorder. Medication might also be appropriate in some cases.

The first part of therapy is largely informational; many people are greatly helped by simply understanding exactly what panic disorder is, and how many others suffer from it. Many people who suffer from panic disorder are worried that their panic attacks mean they're 'going crazy' or that the panic might induce a heart attack. 'Cognitive restructuring' (changing one's way of thinking) helps people replace those thoughts with more realistic, positive ways of viewing the attacks.

Cognitive therapy can help the patient identify possible triggers for the attacks. The trigger in an individual case could be something like a thought, a situation, or something as subtle as a slight change in heartbeat. Once the patient understands that the panic attack is separate and independent of the trigger, that trigger begins to lose some of its power to induce an attack.

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The behavioral components of the therapy can consist of what one group of clinicians has termed 'interoceptive exposure.' This is similar to the systematic desensitization used to cure phobias, but what it focuses on is exposure to he actual physical sensations that someone experiences during a panic attack.

People with panic disorder are more afraid of the actual attack than they are of specific objects or events; for instance, their 'fear of flying' is not that the planes will crash but that they will have a panic attack in a place, like a plane, where they can't get to help. Others won't drink coffee or go to an overheated room because they're afraid that these might trigger the physical symptoms of a panic attack.

Interoceptive exposure can help them go through the symptoms of an attack (elevated heart rate, hot flashes, sweating, and so on) in a controlled setting, and teach them that these symptoms need not develop into a full-blown attack. Behavioral therapy is also used to deal with the situational avoidance associated with panic attacks. One very effective treatment for phobias is in vivo exposure, which is in its simplest terms means breaking a fearful situation down into small manageable steps and doing them one at a time until the most difficult level is mastered.

Relaxation techniques can further help someone 'flow through' an attack. These techniques include breathing retraining and positive visualization. Some experts have found that people with panic disorder tend to have slightly higher than average breathing rates, learning to slow this can help someone deal with a panic attack and can also prevent future attacks.

In some cases, medications may also be needed. Anti-anxiety medications may be prescribed, as well as antidepressants, and sometimes even heart medications (such as beta blockers) that are used to control irregular heartbeats.

Finally, a support group with others who suffer from panic disorder can be very helpful to some people. It can't take the place of therapy, but it can be a useful adjunct.

If you suffer from panic disorder, these therapies can help you. But you can't do them on your own; all of these treatments must be outlined and prescribed by a psychologist or psychiatrist.

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How Long Does Treatment Take?

Much of the success of treatment depends on your willingness to carefully follow the outlined treatment plan. This is often multifaceted, and it won't work overnight, but if you stick with it, you should start to have noticeable improvement within about 10 to 20 weekly sessions. If you continue to follow the program, within one year you will notice a tremendous improvement.

If you are suffering from panic disorder, you should be able to find help in your area. You need to find a licensed psychologist or other mental health professional who specializes in panic or anxiety disorders. There may even be a clinic nearby that specializes in these disorders.

When you speak with a therapist, specify that you think you have panic disorder, and ask about his or her experience treating this disorder.

Keep in mind, though, that panic disorder, like any other emotional disorder, isn't something you can either diagnose or cure by yourself. An experience clinical psychologist or psychiatrist is the most qualified person to make this diagnosis, just as he or she is the most qualified to treat this disorder.

This brochure is designed to answer your basic questions about panic disorder; a qualified mental health professional will be able to give you more complete information.

Panic disorder does not need to disrupt your life in any way!
589870 tn?1222666787
My older sister is suffering from undiagnosed Agoraphobia, she is getting steadily worse and absolutely refuses any type of help.

For years we referred to her as a "Nervous Nelly" and she gets so hyper and her behavior becomes so erratic and combative when we try to help her by even just saying that she needs help.  She is now having her young son of 11yrs of age to say when we call "she is sleeping, shopping, on in the shower".  Her son has become adept at protecting her non involvement in everything.   We have all gone through panic attacks, just we got help many years ago (we're in our 40's) I got mine through my teenage years and in turn have helped my other sibilings

I know she is sliding now at a faster rate, because she is now doing this to our middle sister which I/we never thought she would do this.  She has always been hyper about many things and she uses anger and screaming and physical hitting as a way of avoiding her issues.

It is because she will not face or let go of the past.  She can not get past some of her childhood issues ~ our parents were neglectful emotional distance and lack of bare essentials and heaped too much responsibility on my older sister (there are 5 kids within 6 1/2 yrs ~ I am the youngest) then when she became a teenager my mother did a 180 turn and overly compensated my sister to the point of groveling to my sister.
Avatar universal
um i dont know where you got this from.. but i have been on this site about 3 yrs, have done seminars for anxiety, and am soon to graduate in Psychotherapy and behavioral science. i just want to say not to sound mean

BUT THERE IS SOOOOO MUCH WRONG INFORMATION IN EVERY POST YOU JUST MADE ITS PATHETIC..
Avatar universal
OR SHOULD I SAY.. WHERE EVER YOU COPIED AND PASTED THAT FROM IS WRONG.. ESPECIALLY  ALL THE PANIC DISORDER PANIC ATTACK STUFF.
Avatar universal
Don't worry about this person and her posts, she is no longer posting on here because so many people disagreed with her.  It is unfortunate that MedHelp didn't remove this thread.  They did remove another one that she wrote where she basically told all of us that we had to put our faith in Christ to be free of this problem.  It was at that point where a lot of us were quite disturbed by her view and the fact that she felt that you had to be a Christian to "get over" this phobia.  She claimed to be a teacher of psychology but her exclusion of people of all faiths or no faith disturbed quite a few of us and things got a little heated (mainly very defensive on her part) and she chose to stop posting.  

I personally would welcome your view on this subject not only for myself but for the others (lurkers or contributors) who have had this off and on for most of our lives or those who are new to it.  Even as an old hand at this, it is refreshing to hear new ideas and input.

Barfer
Avatar universal
I believe Christ can and will help you threw panic attacks and anxiety.I have panic real bad and he does block it from me sometimes if I ask.Not to get on a religious debate just pointing out my opinion.
Avatar universal
All opinions welcome. But she was telling people to search out things and write Jesus in search engines and they will be healed. A little bit over the top. We don't knock people for what they believe in. It was the preaching that went a bit too far in other threads.
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