Are you seeing a specialist (I would assume a neurologist? I'm not sure) for your migraines? Or are you seeing your primary care doctor?
Be straight with your doctor and ask why he is reluctant to give you the medication. Look up the side effects, if you haven't already. There could be something in your medical history that makes him reluctant to risk giving it to you.
As for the toe, if it is causing you so much pain that it is impacting normal activities, ask for a referral to an orthopedic surgeon who specializes in foot issues - NOT a podiatrist. A podiatrist is great for external orthotics and treatments, but I wouldn't let one cut into my feet.
Surgery of any kind is never fun, but as a veteran of three foot surgeries I can tell you it's worth it for the pain relief.
When you say you have been diagnosed with arthritis in your big toe, is this osteoarthritis, Gout or a bunion?
All these are very painful and are treated differently.
There are special medications for gout.
Normal pain relief and anti inflammatory drugs, compresses and rest for the foot if this is osteoarthritis.
For your migraines these can be triggered off by certain foods, allergy to medications, stress and anxiety.
Keep a diary of the foods and drinks you consume to see if you can find a pattern. The culprit foods that cause triggers for most people are chocolate, coffee, cheese, oranges, red wine. You may have different triggers.