It does sound stressful. My 17-year-old type-1 daughter is a competitive swimmer, and I know that during her swim season she has to reduce her insulin by a fair amount, and still she sometimes gets lows that can really take it out of her. She's also on the pen system, which has worked well for her. Is your son on Lantus (glargine) at night? When she switched to that, with Novolog at mealtimes, her numbers stablized and she has since then had fewer lows during workouts. If you haven't tried that, I'd suggest talking to your doc about it. It has worked really well for her.
As for the sore knees, I have a 14-year-old daughter who does not have diabetes, but she is growing and often has sore joints-- it could just be from his growth and training. But of course you should tell your endocrinologist about it.
Hang in there, and good luck with it. His training will serve him well in the long run!
The inability to control his muscles was probably due to the very low glucose levels. That kind of temporary symptom is very common with severe hypoglycemia. He should absolutely always have some sports drink such as Gatorade with him. If he notices any kind of loss of muscle control, loss of coordination or the knee problem you write about, he should test his glucose first of all, for the problem is probably hypoglycemia. Gatorade or any sports drink like this is probably the very quickest fix for him, and after he drinks it and rests for about 15 minutes to allow his glucose levels to rise, he will probably be fine. This muscle problem should be temporary and is not a problem with damage but more a problem with his brain being temporarily low on glucose, which is the brain's primary fuel, and therefore the brain being temporarily unable to communicate with his muscles.
It is nothing to worry about as long as he tests his sugar levels and takes in some quick-acting carbs such as sports drink.
this is something I've experienced myself on occasion. My neck muscles started moving very jerkily and it was difficult to walk. Later on, I tested and found my glucose was 25 mg/dl. Just keep some glucose tablets on hand and you should be fine
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Your son is into competitive sports, and so I want to add that I played USTA tennis as a young adult and also was a white water raft guide the year I turned 40... being active is very possible for type 1 folks. But when active and also after strenuous activity, we need to check those glucose levels more often. I am a competitive tennis player, and I noticed that if glucose levels were either high OR low, my game was "off". My coordination would be affected until I got the sugars normalized, and sometimes I just would never be able to get my best reflexes back if I allowed glucose levels to get off for very long. It really is a tough balancing act, but is possible and so very worth the effort. Good luck to your son in his sports!