i should mention that i live in norway and we have a very low number of infected people, around 2000 total out of a 5 million ppl population.
It doesn't sound as though you are at high risk, as it sounds like your ex-GF isn't in any high risk category. If you aren't 100% sure of her status, all you need to do is go and get an HIV test for your peace of mind. I'm sure it will be negative.
As for your other question, in the US (cannot speak for other countries), health care workers only have yearly TB tests, and are recommended to have a one-time immunization series against Hepatitis B, but there is no regular testing schedule unless you have had some sort of incident or exposure.