You're fine, and your symptoms have nothing to do with HIV.
Condoms have an expiration date only because they are more likely to break after that date. It doesn't mean it becomes ineffective if it stays intact - it's more just a warning that you're more likely to experience breakage as time goes on.
Since the condom did NOT visibly break, you were at no risk for HIV and only the head of the penis needs to be covered to protect you from HIV. That was clearly the case, because if the head wasn't covered it would have come completely off your penis.
Some of your symptoms sound like anxiety, but in any case, they are NOT related to HIV since you had no risk.