According to the 65 clinical studies, PPC improved subjective symptoms and clinical findings such as pain in the right hypochondrium and hepatomegaly, biochemical markers of hepatic cytolysis, detoxification, excretion, synthesis, clearance and dyslipidemia, imaging data by ultrasonography or computed tomography, and histological evaluation of steatosis, necroinflammation and fibrosis. One study included a quality of life assessment by focusing on pain syndrome and dyspeptic symtoms.
The first significant effects were observed after 4 weeks, with further improvements over the following months (up to 24 months). PPC was more active than diammonium glycyrrhicinate, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), bezafibrate, and fish oil. A combination therapy of metformin, diet, exercise and PPC in patients with type 2 diabetes was more effective than metformin, diet and exercise alone. The same was the case for the combination therapy of PPC with UDCA. No relevant side-effects were reported.
"Based on the pharmacological and clinical data, PPC would appear to be the drug of choice for significantly reducing or abolishing fatty liver of different origin, e.g. due to alcohol or obesity, even if the causing noxa cannot be eliminated, as is the case with diabetes-associated steatosis."