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Pregnancy and Granulosa CT

I have posted a question about a possible risk of a pregnancy on the reccurence of a granulosa cell tumor earlier. You told me that there is no evidence of that.

We have visited the hospital today. We have spoken dr. Willemsen because of
our wish to have children. Because of the fact that there is no evidence of
a negative influence of a pregnancy on Granulosa Cell Tumor we already
decided that we want to try to get pregant.
Dr. Willemsen wants to do some tests now first. He also spoke about
analyzing the tumor on hormones receptors. I have read about that on the
internet. As far as I know in many cases GCT is hormone sensitive (70%).

Is it true that in most cases of GCT the tumor is hormone sensitive? Would your opinion be different when the tumor seems to be hormone receptor
positive? And if the tumor seems to be hormone receptor negative, would
there be no concern anymore about the influence of high estrogen (during pregnancy) on the
reccurence of the tumor? Or is that still not enough evidence?

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242604 tn?1328121225
Hi Sandra,

Granulosa cell tumors produce estrogen and estrogen levels are a good marker to evaluate for recurrence. I am not aware of any studies showing that estrogen causes these tumors to grow. I have pasted a very nice review from emedicine below.
best wishes

Three major types of ovarian neoplasms are described, with epithelial cell tumors (70%) comprising the largest group of tumors. Germ cell tumors occur less frequently (20%), while sex cord–stromal tumors make up the smallest proportion, accounting for approximately 8% of all ovarian neoplasms.

Granulosa-theca cell tumors, more commonly known as granulosa cell tumors (GCTs), belong to the sex cord–stromal group and include tumors made up of granulosa cells, theca cells, and fibroblasts in varying degrees and combinations. GCTs account for approximately 2% of all ovarian tumors and can be divided into adult (95%) and juvenile (5%) types based on histologic findings.

Both subtypes commonly produce estrogen, and estrogen production often is the reason for early diagnosis. However, while adult GCTs (AGCTs) usually occur in postmenopausal women and have late recurrences, most juvenile GCTs (JGCTs) develop in individuals younger than 30 years and often recur within the first 3 years. Theca cell tumors almost always are benign and carry an excellent prognosis. The rare malignant thecoma likely represents a tumor with a small admixture of granulosa cells. For this reason, the remainder of the article focuses on GCTs, except where indicated.

Recognition of the signs and symptoms of abnormal hormone production and consideration of these tumors in the differential diagnosis of an adnexal mass can allow for early identification, timely surgical management, and excellent cure rates. Despite the good overall prognosis, long-term follow-up always is required in patients with GCTs.

Two theories exist to explain the etiology of sex cord–stromal tumors. The first proposes that these neoplasms are derived from the mesenchyme of the developing genital ridge. The second purports that sex cord and stromal cells of the mature ovary are derived from precursors found within the mesonephric and coelomic epithelium.

Reports of extraovarian GCTs can be found in the literature and may lend support to the derivation of this class of tumors from epithelium of the coelom and mesonephric duct.

Various theories propose explanations for the differentiation of normal granulosa and/or stromal cells into neoplastic entities. To date, no clear etiologic process has been identified. Initiation of growth in GCTs likely is multifactorial.

GCTs are thought to be tumors of low malignant potential. Most of these tumors follow a benign course, with only a small percentage showing aggressive behavior. Metastatic disease can involve any organ system, although tumor growth usually is confined to the abdomen and pelvis.

United States
Approximately 25,000 new cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year. This disease accounts for more than 14,000 deaths in the United States annually and is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. Because sex cord–stromal tumors account for only 5% of all ovarian tumors and approximately 8% of all malignant ovarian neoplasms, each year only 1500-2000 new cases of these tumors are diagnosed in the United States.

Unlike epithelial ovarian cancers, no racial or ethnic predilection is found for ovarian germ cell or sex cord–stromal tumors. The incidence of this group of tumors essentially is the same throughout the world, as witnessed by similar frequency of these tumors in Japan, Sweden, and the West Indies.

AGCTs and JGCTs have very good cure rates due to the early stage of disease at diagnosis. More than 90% of AGCTs and JGCTs are diagnosed before spread occurs outside the ovary. Five-year survival rates usually are 90-95% for stage I tumors compared to 25-50% for patients presenting with advanced-stage disease. Although 5-year survival rates are quite good, AGCTs have a propensity for late recurrence, some occurring as many as 37 years after diagnosis. Mean survival after the diagnosis of a recurrence is 5 years.

Approximately 20% of patients diagnosed with GCTs die of their disease over the course of their lifetime.
Morbidity related to GCTs primarily is due to endocrine manifestations of the disease. Physical changes brought on by high estrogen levels from the tumor usually regress upon removal of the tumor. However, a small group of patients present with symptoms of androgen excess from the tumor. Changes caused by androgen excess may be permanent or may only partially regress over time.
Serious estrogen effects can occur in various end organs. Unopposed estrogen production by these tumors has been shown to cause stimulation of the endometrium. Anywhere from 30-50% of patients develop endometrial hyperplasia and another 8-33% have endometrial adenocarcinoma. Patients also may be at an increased risk for breast cancer, although a direct correlation has been difficult to prove.

Limited available data show that this class of neoplasms makes up a similar proportion of ovarian malignancies in the United States, Europe, the Far East, and the West Indies.

Granulosa cell tumors can occur in the juvenile and adult male testes, albeit very rarely. The frequency of GCTs in the male testes is even lower than that of GCTs in females and is the least common sex cord stromal tumor in the testes.


AGCTs account for 95% of all GCTs and usually are seen in postmenopausal women, with a median age at diagnosis of 52 years.
JGCTs comprise only 5% of all GCTs, and almost all of these tumors are found in patients younger than 30 years.
Theca cell tumors (ie, thecomas) account for less than 1% of all ovarian tumors, and the mean age at diagnosis is 53 years. These tumors are rare in women younger than 30 years, with the exception of the luteinized thecoma, which tends to occur in younger women.

CLINICALSection 3 of 11     Authors and Editors Introduction Clinical Differentials Workup Treatment Medication Follow-up Miscellaneous Multimedia References

Many patients with GCTs present with manifestations of hyperestrogenism. Approximately 70% of these tumors are hormonally active. Hormonal influences can cause different presenting symptoms depending on patient age and menstrual status. Although these symptoms can be quite profound, often they may be secondary findings in patients with complaints relating to the abdomen and pelvis.

Reports of increasing abdominal girth and abdominal discomfort are quite common. Most patients have a palpable mass found during examination. Abdominal symptoms may be due to enlargement of the mass but also can be due to the production of ascites, which occurs in approximately 10% of patients. Increasing size of the mass also can lead to symptoms associated with compression of adjacent structures, such as abdominal pain, dysuria, urinary frequency, and constipation.

Acute onset of abdominal pain also can occur, although rarely. Acute abdominal or pelvic pain may be observed in combination with nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and shoulder pain. These symptoms may be due to adnexal torsion, rupture of a partially cystic GCT, or hemorrhage either within the tumor or into the peritoneum.

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242604 tn?1328121225
Hi Again,
I have also pasted an analysis of estrogen receptor status of granulosa cell tumors for those who are interested in some more science. The bottom line is that granulosa cell tumors have estrogen receptors at least 60 % of the time but that does not mean that estrgen stimulates their growth.

Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2007 Oct;26(4):375-82 Farinola et al
The biologic role that estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) play in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors is poorly understood. Furthermore, immunohistochemical data on these hormone receptors in this group of neoplasms are limited and conflicting, with many reports suggesting that expression of ERalpha and/or PR is either infrequent or present at low levels in granulosa and Sertoli cell tumors. Immunohistochemical staining for ERalpha and PR was performed in 69 ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: 41 adult granulosa cell tumors and 28 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. Extent of expression was scored based on the percentage of positive cells: 0, 5% or less; 1+, 6% to 25%; 2+, 26% to 50%; 3+, 51% to 75%; and 4+, 76% to 100%. Estrogen receptor alpha and PR were frequently expressed in adult granulosa cell tumors (66% and 98%, respectively) and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (79% and 86%, respectively). Diffuse (3+ or 4+) expression of PR was more common in adult granulosa cell tumors (68% vs. 36%; P = 0.013), whereas diffuse (3+ or 4+) expression of ERalpha was more frequent in Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (50% vs. 20%; P = 0.010). In cases positive for both markers, adult granulosa cell tumors exhibited a focal (1+ or 2+) ERalpha/diffuse (3+ or 4+) PR coordinate profile more commonly than Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (52% vs. 18%; P = 0.02), whereas Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors displayed a diffuse (3+ or 4+) ERalpha/focal (1+ or 2+) PR profile more frequently than adult granulosa cell tumors (36% vs. 0%; P = 0.0007). We conclude that expression of hormone receptors (based only on frequency of immunostaining) does not allow for distinction from other tumors in the differential diagnosis that are known to be frequently positive for ERalpha and PR such as endometrioid neoplasms. Most adult granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors share overlapping patterns of expression of ERalpha and PR with each other, but a subset of cases in each tumor category exhibits unique ERalpha/PR immunoprofiles (eg, focal ERalpha/diffuse PR in adult granulosa cell tumors and diffuse ERalpha/focal PR in Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors). These patterns of expression of ERalpha and PR may aid our understanding of the biologic differences between granulosa and Sertoli cell tumors.

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