The pulmonary artery and the aorta are the two “great” arteries that lead out from the right and left sides of the heart, respectively. At minimum, the pulmonary artery is typically larger than the aorta in the normal fetus. Without knowing about how much of a size discrepancy there is as well as not knowing their absolute measurements in relation to the fetus’ age, I cannot tell you whether this is a normal finding in this case, or not. There are certainly other congenital cardiac defects in which there is a large size discrepancy, such as the aorta being too small or the pulmonary artery being too big. I recommend that your brother’s wife be seen by a pediatric cardiologist who specializes in fetal echocardiography. That way, a complete cardiac ultrasound can be performed, including all appropriate measurements, and a more complete interpretation of this information is possible.
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