LISTEN TO MISSMUMK!
If your friend is that close to the "real deal" She should take appropriate precautions.
Condoms are excellent for preventing pregnancy and preventing sexually transmitted diseases. They are nowhere close to 100% however, and your friend should really consider something stronger that SHE can control like birth control pills. Has your friend talked to her mom about all this?
If your friend is not comfortable with having this discussion with her parents, the folks at Planned Parenthood are really cool. Your friend can act now to save herself a lot of future grief, and I suggest that she do it!
Maybe you could go with her--for support!
I don't know why your friend bled when she was being "fingered" as you've put it, possibly because the person doing it to her was too rough and has possibly broken her hymen which normally breaks when you have sex for the first time.
To answer your second question, no, it is unlikely that you could get pregnant by rubbing genitals together unless the penis is inside the vagina. Sperm can travel into the vagina if your parter ejaculates and then puts his penis inside, as there may be residual sperm left... but I'm not a doctor and it's best your friend goes to one...
Condoms are effective but there's always a chance you could still fall pregnant...
My advice is, if you don't want to fall pregnant then don't have sex... and if you must, do the right thing and go to your Doctor first... sex can seem all fun and games in the moment but there are realities to your friends actions, the last thing you or your friend want is a teen or unwanted pregnancy, as it can lead to all sorts of trouble...
Best wished and God bless..