No STD would give you symptoms that quickly. It takes at least 2 days, often many more, to see symptoms.
Could you be anxious and hyper-aware of the area? Dehydrated?
You can get gonorrhea, chlamydia, NGU, syphilis and genital herpes type 1 (if you don't already have oral type 1) from receiving oral sex. Syphilis is uncommon in most developed countries, so I wouldn't worry much about that.
Most experts think that testing after a one-time oral encounter isn't warranted. If you decide to test, you can test for gonorrhea, chlamydia and NGU at 5 days, syphilis at 6 weeks, and herpes at 12 weeks (if you don't already have hsv1 - many people do, even if they've never had symptoms).
Overall, I wouldn't worry about this. Oral sex is a lot lower risk than genital sex.