Hi there -
Using a condom, the most likely infections you could get are herpes, syphilis and HPV.
Syphilis will show up within a month on a test, herpes can take up to 4 months, and there is no test for men and HPV. If you are female, the HPV test is done in conjunction with your pap.
Syphilis is curable already. You just need a shot. HPV will run its course and clear within about 2 years, though many clear it much faster.
Herpes is not curable, but it is managable. There probably will not be a cure anytime soon, as we have yet to be able to cure any virus.