Thanks for your question, which arrived just as I was logging in myself. Most questions don't get real-time replies!
I have mixed feelings about the treatments you received. The risk of infection after any single exposure of this sort, even with condom failure, is very low. Most STD experts would not have treated you in this manner, unless your partner were known for sure to be infected.
That said, the treatments will do you no harm, and were 100% protective against gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. I don't understand your doctor's comment about amoxicicllin, which isn't necessary to abort syphilis. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) is effective against syphilis, and so is azithromycin 90% of the time. However, I agree with her that syphilis was essentially zero risk anyway.
To your specific questions:
1) I agree with this advice.
2) Almost zero -- see above. The chance such a partner has HIV is very low, and even if she did, the average risk of HIV transmission from a single episode of vaginal sex, with an infected partner, is around 1 in 1,000.
3) I agree it makes sense, for reassurance, to be tested for HIV in a few weeks, even though the chance of infection in this circumstance is very close to zero. You should not have a herpes blood test. The risk is too low, and the test not sufficiently reliable for use in this circumstance. (Just scan this forum for many discussions about problems with HSV blood testing.)
4) No, don't worry about any others.
I hope this has helped. Best wishes-- HHH, MD