You describe a low risk event with respect to STD. Further, if you had acquired those STDs that are relatively common after receiving oral sex (gonorrhea, NGU), you would have known it; both problems usually cause obvious discharge of pus or mucus from the penis.
But more important, you describe an absolutely classical story for genital yeast infection, which is not sexually transmitted. With a professional diagnosis of a yeast (fungus) infection in your partner, you can be sure that is what she has, not an STD. And her symptoms are absolutely perfect for yeast infection -- I could use your description to teach medical students. Such infections originate in the woman herself; all women carry yeasts in the vagina or rectum at least some of the time, and active infections occur when those germs become more active -- not because she catches it from her partner or the environment. Further, it is also common for male partners of women with yeast infections to get penile irritation, which may explain your dry, flaky skin. However, your urethral discomfort sounds like nothing more than anxiety.
So the direct answers to your questions are:
1) Your exposure was low risk and the absence of symptoms in the next 2 months is strong evidence you weren't infected with anything.
2) No. See above.
3) Misdiagnosis is unlikely. Recognizing and diagnosing vaginal yeast infections is very simple and well within the capapbility of providers even with very rudimentary training. In any case, don't assume your doctor is not well trained. Many developing countries have very sophisticated medical communities.
4) Based on all you say, I see no need for STD testing. On the other hand, if it is your habit to occasionally have sex outside your marriage, then getting routine STD and HIV testing from time to time (e.g. once a year) makes sense. But not because of the particular exposure and clinical situation you describe.
Best wishes--- HHH, MD
Addition: I have also had itching on my scrotum for a week or two. I had been doing traveling in Asia and I'm not sure if that might be related.
Clarification: My partner's symptoms lasted a few days and then seemed to subside for 4-7 days being we noticed her discharge had reappeared (white clumps on my penis during sex). The other symptoms have not come back.
Scrotal itching also could be due to yeast. If your genital area irritation/itching continue, you could purchase an over-the-counter cream for yeast/fungal infections. A pharmacist could point you to the right product -- or look for a cream whose active ingrediate ends in "azole" (examples are miconozole, clotrimazole, and many others) (your partner's oral medicine probably was fluconazole).
Thanks very much for your reply. I'm not sure if your reply already covered this but is it correct that the risk of contracting gonorrhea or other infections from performing cunnilingus is also low?
STDs are rarely transmitted by cunnilingus; virtually zero risk for both partners.
That will have to end this thread. All is well. Take care.