Welcome to the MedHelp forum!
I am going to quote from this website itself.
“This procedure is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. A flap is cut in the scalp and a small hole is drilled in the skull. A small catheter is passed into a ventricle of the brain.
A valve (pump) that controls the flow of fluid is attached to the catheter to keep the fluid away from the brain. Another catheter is attached to the pump. It is tunneled under the skin, behind the ear, down the neck and chest, and into the abdominal cavity (peritoneal cavity).” Shunt malfunction, block, repeat surgery, bleeding, infection, problem breathing etc can happen after surgery. Yet, this surgery gives life to a person who has problem draining CSF. You can read more at: http://www.medhelp.org/medical-information/show/3028/Ventriculoperitoneal-shunt?page=1