There can be several causes. The first would be infection. Either urethritis or prostatitis can cause the symptoms. A urinalysis as well as tests for STDs should be considered. Prostatitis can be evaluated via a digital rectal exam as well as sending off the prostatitic fluid for analysis and culture. You can also consider a transrectal ultrasound to evaluate the structure of the prostate as well as infection.
Another cause would be anatomical abnormalities - such as a urethral stricture or polyp. You can consider a cystoscopy to evaluate the anatomy.
You may want to discuss these options with your personal urologist.
Followup with your personal physician is essential.
This answer is not intended as and does not substitute for medical advice - the information presented is for patient education only. Please see your personal physician for further evaluation of your individual case.
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