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what the blood tests/labs indicate below:

Sep 15, 2012 - 0 comments




General Information


what the tests indicate below:

If your TSH number is non-existent it means you are HYPERthyroid



NAME AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein)
NORMAL RANGE 0-8.9 ng/ml
DEFINITION This is a protein that is often used as a tumor marker for liver cancer. AFP is not normally present in healthy adults, other than pregnant women.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT High levels may mean active liver disease. This test is also used for detection of liver cancer  (hepatocellular cancer)..


NAME Alb (Albumin)
NORMAL RANGE 3.3-5.2 mg/dl
DEFINITION This is the major protein in the blood, made only by the liver. It makes up the largest part of the Total Protein level. It maintains the fluid balance in your body.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT A low level may mean advanced liver disease, because the liver is not able to produce the normal amount. Low levels may also be due to malnutrition, kidney disease or bowel and intestinal disease.


NAME AlkP (Alkaline phosphatase)
NORMAL RANGE 40-125 U/L
DEFINITION This is an enzyme made in the liver's bile ducts, bone, kidney and intestine.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT High levels mean more advanced liver disease, especially problems with the liver's bile ducts. Levels can also be high if there is bone disease.


NAME ALT/SGPT (Alanine Aminotransferase)
NORMAL RANGE 7-56 U/L
DEFINITION This is an enzyme made in liver cells. If liver cells are damaged or die, ALT leaks out into the bloodstream.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT This is the most important test to follow in a person with liver disease. A high ALT may mean a high degree of liver cell damage. However, ALT levels can also vary, and do not always reflect the degree of liver cell damage. A liver cell biopsy will give the most accurate information. The ALT enzyme is a more accurate marker of liver damage than the Ast enzyme. One goal of treatment for hepatitis C is a normal ALT level.


NAME Antibody  
DEFINITION This is a protein developed by your body that protects you from an antigen.


NAME Anti-HBs (hepatitis B surface antibody)  
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT If this test is positive, you have antibodies against the hepatitis B virus. You are likely to be immune (or protected) against the hepatitis B virus.


NAME Anti-HBc (hepatitis B core antibody)
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT If this test is positive, you have developed an antibody to the core of the virus and have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus. You may be currently infected, were infected and fought it off, have chronic infection or a false positive test.

NAME Anti-HCV (hepatitis C antibody)
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT If this test is positive, you may be infected with hepatitis C virus. This test does not tell whether you were exposed and fought off the infection, have chronic infection or if it is a false positive test. Another test called RIBA (recombinant immunoblot assay) may be used to confirm the hepatitis C antibody test result.


NAME Antigen  
DEFINITION The antigen is the part of the virus that signals your body to protect itself.


NAME AST/SGOT (Aspartate Aminotransferase)
NORMAL RANGE 5-35 U/L
DEFINITION This is an enzyme made in liver cells, similar to the ALT. It is also made in muscles, and can be released from damaged muscle, heart, kidney, and brain tissue. Therefore, the AST level can be affected by many conditions other than liver disease.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT Elevated levels can mean liver damage. Often the AST and ALT levels will elevate at the same time.


NAME Basophils
NORMAL RANGE 0.01-0.20 K/µl
DEFINITION These are white blood cells that are similar to Neutrophils.


NAME CBC(Complete Blood Count)
NORMAL RANGE See specific tests RBC HGB WBC and Platelets
DEFINITION A CBC tests for all the blood cells, including red blood cells and the different types of white blood cells.


NAME Cholesterol
NORMAL RANGE 100-240 mg/dl
DEFINITION Cholesterol is synthesized in the liver. It helps to build hormones, vitamins and cell membranes.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT High levels of cholesterol are associated with atherosclerosis and heart disease. Low levels are a marker of poor liver function.


NAME CREAT (Creatinine)
NORMAL RANGE 0.6-1.4 mg/dl
DEFINITION This is a breakdown product of creatinine phosphate, which is a protein found in muscle. It is made entirely by the kidneys.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT Abnormal levels usually indicate problems with the kidneys or renal system.


NAME Eosinophils
NORMAL RANGE 0.04-0.50 K/µl
DEFINITION These are white blood cells that are similar to Neutrophils.



NAME Ferritin
NORMAL RANGE 29-300 µg/L
DEFINITION This protein stores iron in the liver.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT Primary storage form of iron in the body. High levels may mean liver disease or hemochromatosis.


NAME Genotype
DEFINITION The genotype is a mixture of genes within a virus. Genotypes help determine the genetic character of the viruses, such as the hepatitis C virus. Currently, there are six known hepatitis C genotypes.


NAME GGT (Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase)
NORMAL RANGE 7-64 U/l  
DEFINITION This is an enzyme made in the bile ducts. High levels may mean problems with the liver's bile ducts.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT GGT is a very sensitive test, and can elevate if you use drugs or alcohol.


NAME Globulin
NORMAL RANGE 1-2.8 g/dl
DEFINITION These proteins and albumin make up Total Protein.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT Levels of these proteins may vary in liver disease.


NAME HBeAg (hepatitis B e antigen)
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT If you test positive, you are currently infected and probably have high levels of hepatitis B virus in your blood. You may be very infectious to others.


NAME HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen)  
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT If you test positive, you are currently infected with hepatitis B.


NAME HCT (Hematocrit)
NORMAL RANGE 42-52%
DEFINITION This measures the percentage of red blood cells per volume of blood sample.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT Low levels may mean anemia. With anemia, hemoglobin may also be low.


NAME Hgb(Hemoglobin)
NORMAL RANGE 14-18 g/dl
DEFINITION This is a protein portion of red blood cells that carries oxygen.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT Low levels may mean anemia, which is a common side effect of ribavirin treatment.


NAME INR (International normalized ratio)
DEFINITION This is a system of reporting the results of blood clotting tests.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT In the INR system, results of blood clotting tests are standardized so health care providers all over the world are able to read the results.

NAME Iron
DEFINITION This is a mineral that plays a role in hemoglobin formation.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT % Iron Saturated in Blood: Measures overall percentage of iron in blood. Normal range is 16-60%.

  
Serum Iron: Measures level of iron in blood and is used to test for both low iron and iron overload, such as hemochromatosis. Normal range is 50-150 µg/dl.




NAME LYMPHS(Lymphocytes)
NORMAL RANGE 0.8-3.5 K/µl
DEFINITION These are white blood cells that produce antibodies to fight viral infections.


NAME Monocytes
NORMAL RANGE 0.2-0.8 K/µl
DEFINITION These are WBC that destroy foreign bacteria and other matter.


NAME NEUTS (Neutrophils)
NORMAL RANGE 2.2-8.6 K/µl
DEFINITION These are WBC that play a key role in inflammation, allergic reactions, pus formation, and in destroying bacteria and parasites.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT Low neutrophil can mean infection or inflammation. Interferon treatment is associated with low neutrophil levels. Therefore, you must have normal levels of neutrophils to start interferon.



NAME Platelets
NORMAL RANGE 140-400 /mm3
DEFINITION These are small blood cells that helps blood clot when injury occurs.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT May be low in advanced liver disease, or while on interferon treatment. A low count may increase the chance of bleeding. Therefore, you must have normal levels of platelets to start interferon treatment.


NAME Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
DEFINITION This is a test that can detect the hepatitis C virus. Examples of this test include the following:
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT(S) Qualitative PCR: tests for presence of virus. Result is given as "positive" or "negative".

  
Quantitative PCR: tests for amount of virus (viral load). The viral loads are often expressed in international units so that the values obtained by different test methods can be compared. The result is given as an actual number (for example, number of virus particles per milliliter of blood).



NAME Protein, total
NORMAL RANGE 6.0-8.5 g/dl
DEFINITION Total protein includes large particles in the blood made of albumin and globulins.
EXPLANATION OF TEST
RESULT Low levels of total protein indicate a more advanced stage of liver disease.



NAME PT (Prothrombin Time)
NORMAL RANGE 9.8-13.8 seconds
DEFINITION This is a measure of the time that it takes for your blood to clot. Prothrombin is a protein that is changed to thrombin during clotting.
EXPLANATION OF TEST
RESULT High PT may mean advanced liver disease. It may also be high if you are taking coumadin (warfarin) for a heart condition, or if you have a vitamin K deficiency.


NAME PTT (Partial Thromboplastin Time)
NORMAL RANGE 24.2-36.0 seconds
DEFINITION This is another measure of clotting time.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT In addition to PT, this result shows if blood is clotting at a normal time. It is higher than normal in people with clotting disorders or patients on certain medicines, such as heparin.


NAME Quasispecies
DEFINITION When the virus changes and makes copies, it can make errors. This leads to minor genetic differences in viruses in an individual infected with a single genotype.


NAME RBC(Red Blood Cells)
NORMAL RANGE 4.7-6.1 /mm3  
DEFINITION These are small cells that carry oxygen in the blood.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT Lab values show over- or under-production. Low levels may mean anemia.


NAME RIBA™ (recombinant immunoblot assay)
DEFINITION This is a more specific test than the hepatitis C antibody test, that helps confirm a diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection.



NAME T3, total
NORMAL RANGE 45-137 ng/dl
DEFINITION T3 is a form of thyroid hormone.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT T3 levels may be abnormal in liver disease.


NAME T4, free
NORMAL RANGE 9-24 pmol/l
DEFINITION T4 is a form of thyroid hormone.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT T4 levels may be abnormal in liver disease.


NAME TBili (bilirubin, total)
NORMAL RANGE 0.1-1.2 mg/dl
DEFINITION TBili is a breakdown product from hemoglobin in old red blood cells. Usually, it is removed from the blood by the liver, broken down, and sent to the intestines through the bile ducts.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT High levels mean liver damage, or blockage in the ducts (tubes) of the liver. High levels also cause yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (called jaundice).


NAME Triglycerides
NORMAL RANGE 10-190 mg/dl
DEFINITION These are fatty substances in the blood.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT Triglyceride levels may become high during interferon treatment. Levels usually return to normal after treatment has stopped.
NAME TSH (Thyroid Stimulation Hormone)
NORMAL RANGE 0.4-6.0 µIU/ml
DEFINITION This hormone causes other thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) to be produced. Thyroid hormones help the body function, and metabolize foods.
EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT High levels of TSH are associated with interferon treatment and hypothyroidism.
NAME WBC(White Blood Cells)
NORMAL RANGE 4.8-10.8 /mm3
DEFINITION This test measures the overall number of white blood cells. There are five types of WBC: Neutrophils, eosinophils, basoph, Monocytles and Lymphocytes. Each of them does slightly different jobs. All of them are used for fighting infections. White blood cells are made in the bone marrow.



EXPLANATION
OF TEST
RESULT Low WBC may mean bone marrow depression, a common side effect of interferon treatment. Low levels can also be caused by reactions to toxins, or to the presence of a virus.

                        

  
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  Liver Function Test
(LFT)

Here is a breakdown of what an LFT (Liver Function Test) may include, what it does, normal values, and what other than normal values can mean. Also drugs and other things that can affect the results of each test.


The typical Liver Profile test includes:
Bilirubin
Protein
LDL
Alkaline Phosphatase
SGOT/AST (aspartate amino transferase)
SGPT/ALT (amino alanine transferase)
Albumin
Globulin

BLOOD BILIRUBIN:
Test evaluates liver function and the condition of red blood cells. Diagnoses jaundice. Monitors progression of jaundice. Helps confirm diagnosis of obstruction of the bile ducts. Helps diagnose cause of anemia.
Normal Values:
Adult indirect bilirubin levels--1.1 mg/dl or less
Adult direct bilirubin levels--Less than 0.5 mg/dl
Total bilirubin in a newborn--1 to 12mg/dl

What "high" or "increased" may indicate:
Congenital enzyme deficiencies (Gilbert's disease)
Liver damage
Severe hemolytic anemia
Obstruction of bile ducts from stones or tumors
If over 20mg/dl in a newborn, exchange transfusion may be needed.



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