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NSAID

Apr 02, 2008 - 0 comments

Salicylates   · Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) · Aloxiprin · Benorylate · Diflunisal · Ethenzamide · Magnesium salicylate · Methyl salicylate · Salsalate · Salicin · Salicylamide · Sodium salicylate ·

Arylalkanoic acids  · Diclofenac · Aceclofenac · Acemetacin · Alclofenac · Bromfenac · Etodolac · Indometacin · Indomethacin farnesil · Nabumetone · Oxametacin · Proglumetacin · Sulindac · Tolmetin ·

2-Arylpropionic acids
(profens)  · Ibuprofen · Alminoprofen · Benoxaprofen · Carprofen · Dexibuprofen · Dexketoprofen · Fenbufen · Fenoprofen · Flunoxaprofen · Flurbiprofen · Ibuproxam · Indoprofen · Ketoprofen · Ketorolac · Loxoprofen · Miroprofen · Naproxen · Oxaprozin · Pirprofen · Suprofen · Tarenflurbil · Tiaprofenic acid ·

N-Arylanthranilic acids
(fenamic acids)  · Mefenamic acid · Flufenamic acid · Meclofenamic acid · Tolfenamic acid ·
Pyrazolidine derivatives  · Phenylbutazone · Ampyrone · Azapropazone · Clofezone · Kebuzone · Metamizole ·
Mofebutazone · Oxyphenbutazone · Phenazone · Sulfinpyrazone ·

Oxicams  · Piroxicam · Droxicam · Lornoxicam · Meloxicam · Tenoxicam ·

COX-2 inhibitors  · Celecoxib · Deracoxib · Etoricoxib · Lumiracoxib · Parecoxib · Rofecoxib · Valdecoxib ·
Sulphonanilides  · Nimesulide ·
Topically used products  · Bendazac · Diclofenac · Etofenamate · Felbinac · Flurbiprofen · Ibuprofen · Indometacin · Ketoprofen · Naproxen · Piroxicam · Suprofen ·
Others  · Fluproquazone · COX-inhibiting nitric oxide donator ·

Pyrazolones - Phenylbutazone (Butazolidin), one of the most toxic NSAIDs
Symptoms of mild poisoning include nausea, abdominal pain, and drowsiness.
Severe poisoning has multisystem effects that, early on, include the GI system (eg, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), the CNS (eg, dizziness, seizures, coma), the cardiovascular system (eg, pulmonary edema, arrest), metabolic and respiratory acidosis, and electrolyte abnormalities.
Delayed severe toxicity (2-7 d) includes renal, hepatic, and hematologic dysfunction.


Anthranilic acids - Mefenamic acid (Ponstel) and meclofenamate sodium (Meclomen)
These drugs have not been studied thoroughly, but they have caused vomiting, diarrhea, muscle twitching, and seizures.
Most patients recover completely within 24 hours.


Diflunisal (Dolobid)
This NSAID commonly causes drowsiness, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Hyperventilation, tachycardia, diaphoresis, tinnitus, disorientation, stupor, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest, and fatality are rarely observed and occur only with doses exceeding 15 g.
The lowest reported dose resulting in fatality is 15 g.


Acetic acid derivatives - Diclofenac sodium (Voltaren), indomethacin (Indocin), sulindac (Clinoril), etodolac (Lodine), ketorolac (Toradol), nabumetone (Relafen), and tolmetin sodium (Tolectin)
These medications rarely have significant toxic effects and usually cause mild symptoms.
Sulindac overdoses are very rare, but case reports have shown effects on renal function.
Indomethacin poisoning can cause headache, lethargy, disorientation, seizures, nausea, vomiting, and GI bleeding.
Diclofenac can cause nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, hallucinations, and acute renal failure (3 cases).


Propionic acid derivatives - Ibuprofen (Motrin), fenoprofen (Nalfon), flurbiprofen (Ansaid), carprofen (Rimadyl), ketoprofen (Orudis), and naproxen sodium (Anaprox, Naprosyn)
Information regarding these relatively new agents is sparse.
Headache, tinnitus, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are the most common symptoms, and commonly appear within 4 hours of ingestion.
Severe toxicity is reported mainly in children and can occur in ingestions of 400 mg/kg or more; symptoms include seizures, apnea, hypertension, and renal and hepatic dysfunction.


Oxicams - Piroxicam (Feldene)
Occasionally, these NSAIDs can cause dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, and coma.




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