All Journal Entries Journals
Previous | Next

Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS

Apr 15, 2008 - 0 comments

8904?1208319105

















                                              Author : Saad.K-raouf


What is AIDS……………………………………………………………...………..
Routes of administration…………………………………...…………………....
What are CD4 cells?.......................................................................................
Why are CD4 Cells important in HIV?...........................................................
Phases of infection…………………………………...…………………………...
Diagnosis and symptoms ……………...........................................................
HIV testing : Why ?And What?......................................................................
AIDS treatment and up to date solutions……………………………………...
Summary…………………………………………………………………………….


What is AIDS
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that destroys the human immune system. AIDS is a type of retrovirus. A retrovirus is a type of virus that contains RNA instead of DNA in its genes. An enzyme called reverse transcriptase is used to become part of the host cell’s DNA. This allows for the multiple copies of the virus in the host cell. The virus that causes AIDS, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is a type of retrovirus. AIDS has become a worldwide concern due to the rapid spread of the virus. Around 40 million people are infected with AIDS. 37 are adults whereas 2.5 million are children. Africa is the largest continent affected with AIDS. Statistics that around 2 million people die of AIDS anally.

Routes of administration:
You can not “get” AIDS. You might get infected with HIV, and later you might develop AIDS.
Most people get the HIV virus by:
1. Having sex with an infected person
2. Sharing a needle with someone who’s infected
3. Being born when the mother is infected
4. Drinking breast milk from an infected woman
5. Getting a transfusion of infected blood
6. It is possible to be infected with HIV through oral sex or in rare cases through deep kissing, especially if you have open sores in your mouth or bleeding gum


What are CD4 cells?

CD4 cells are a type of lymphocyte (white blood cells). They are an important part of the immune system. They are sometimes called T-cells. There are two main types of CD4 cells. The first is T-4 cells, also called helper cells. They lead the attack against infections. T-8 are the other type of cells and they are “suppressor” cells that end the immune response. CD8 cells can also be killer cells that kill cancer cells and cells infected with a virus.
Why Are CD4 Cells Important in HIV?
HIV infects the CD4 cells in humans. The virus becomes part of the CD4 cells and when they start to multiply to attack the virus it makes more copies of the HIV virus at the same time. It takes over the CD4 cells and uses the fact that they multiply to fight the virus to their benefit. When someone is infected with HIV for a long time, the number of CD4 cells decrease which is a sign that the bodies immune system is being weakened. The lower the number of CD4 cells in the body, the more likely the person will get sick. There are millions of different types of CD4 cells and when HIV reduces there number, some of the types might be totally wiped out. This could leave some germs with no immunity to fight it if the particular immunity for that disease was wiped out.  This may lead to a opportunistic infection. Opportunistic infection is an infection that takes advantage of the weakness in the immune defense and may cause health problems.
The phases of infection:
1. The initial infection with HIV is asymptomatic as the viral DNA may remain incorporated into the maternal host cells DNA or RNA for prolonged latent period till the viral synthesis is activated
2. The infected individual undergoes a prolonged period during which sheeding occurs into nearly all body fluids.
3. Afterwards, signs and symptoms will be developed causing AIDS related complex (fever, night sweats, weight loss, generalized lymph nodes enlargement, recurrent infections, and diarrhea).
4. The final stage is characterized by severe dysfunction of the immune system.


Diagnosis

AIDS doesn’t develop symptoms at once as we mentioned  in the HIV development phases . so symptoms develop on an average male in  stages sometimes they do not appear in the 1st  stage but mainly appears in an acute form in the 2nd stage

General Symptoms

Weight loss - Frequent fevers and sweats  -A thick, whitish coating of the tongue or mouth (thrush) that is caused by a yeast infection and sometimes accompanied by a sore throat - Severe or recurring vaginal yeast infections - Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease or severe and frequent infections like herpes zoster  -Periods of extreme and unexplained fatigue that may be combined with headaches, lightheadedness, and/or dizziness - Bruising more easily than normal - Long-lasting bouts of diarrhea - Swelling or hardening of glands located in the throat, armpit, or groin - Periods of continued, deep, dry coughing
Increasing shortness of breath - The appearance of discolored or purplish growths on the skin or inside the mouth - Unexplained bleeding - Recurring or unusual skin rashes - Severe numbness or pain in the hands or feet, the loss of muscle control and reflex - paralysis or loss of muscular  strength - An altered state of consciousness, personality change, or mental deterioration











HIV TESTING: Why do we have to make these tests? And what are these tests?

SOMETIMES symptoms does not appear on the infected person ,so to avoid this we have to test for CD4+ antibodies count in the blood after 3 month of the infection because mostly the antibodies development does not take place unless 2-3 month and then 6 month after the infection to make sure the person is not infected .

Several tests can find antibodies or genetic material (RNA) to the HIV virus. These tests include:
• Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This test is usually the first one used to detect infection with HIV. If antibodies to HIV are present (positive), the test is usually repeated to confirm the diagnosis. If ELISA is negative, other tests are not usually needed. This test has a low chance of having a false result after the first few weeks that a person is infected.

• Western blot. This test is more difficult than the ELISA to perform, but it is done to confirm the results of two positive ELISA tests.

• Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This test finds either the genetic material DNA or RNA of HIV. PCR testing is not done as frequently as antibody testing because it requires technical skill and expensive equipment. This test may be done in the days or weeks after exposure to the virus. Genetic material may be found even if other tests are negative for the virus.

• Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). This test detects HIV antibodies. Like a Western blot test, it is used to confirm the results of an ELISA. However, it is more expensive than a Western blot test and not commonly used.
AIDS treatment and up to date solutions
Initial treatment
If it’s the initial stage and a person was diagnosed with HIV infection antiretroviral drugs such as HAART drugs are mostly used in these cases as they increase the CD4+ cells count and decrease the Viral load in the body
HAART drugs that are most often used to treat HIV infection include:
• Non nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs):nucleotide independent
• Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors :which inhibit the RNA replic
• Protease inhibitors (PIs): to prevent the protein synthesis for the replication of the virus (like interferon mainly does).
• Fusion inhibitors,This is a new class of drugs for treating HIV.
Other drugs that may be used to treat HIV or AIDS-related conditions include cytokines, such as interferon alfa-2a and interferon alfa-2b.else up till nowadays researches done on HIV treatment are so difficult to materialize for patient administration.
• Benefits of these drugs
. Early treatment of HIV using HAART drugs leads to
o Decrease the severity of early HIV symptoms.
o Affect the rate at which the disease progresses.
o Reduce the rate at which the virus multiplies in the body.
o Preserve immune system function.
o Lower the risk of drug resistance with complete viral suppression.
o Reduce the risk of HIV spreading
Since most of medicinal drugs have some risks or side effects, these drugs have some Risks included
• Risks
o Decrease the quality of life since these drugs because of the side effects and its cost.
o Leads to the continuous need for these drugs in order to keep the virus from developing.
o Reduce future drug options if HIV reached its highest risk.
Summary
AIDS or ( Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ) is developed from HIV which is a type of retroviruses that contain RNA instead of DNA and use the CD4+ cells to replicate and multiply which causes an increase in the CD4+ rate in the blood after 3 months from first infection. It has many symptoms that appear in different stages of the virus development starting from initial stage to the established stage till it reaches the final stage, each stage is characterized by certain symptoms or similar symptoms but with difference in severance. Sometimes initial symptoms doesn’t develop which lead us to using tests if the person is suspected to be infected with AIDS, there are various types of tests some of them alone are enough for determining whether this person has +ve or –ve infection while other tests are used to confirm the first tests used. AIDS develop in an average period of 12 to 13 years after person becomes infected but sometimes it develops in 3 years or less and the reason for that is still unknown. Many types of drugs where produced as a treatment for AIDS containing materials that inhibit the growth and replication of the virus but mainly doesn’t completely cure and remove the virus from the body and have many risks and side effects, other treatments where developed and had successful experimental results but can’t be manufactured for medicinal administration yet. So until a secure and powerful drug is produced capable of completely curing the virus is produced  protection from the infection is the better way for avoiding AIDS



































Post a Comment