Without examination,it is very difficult to confirm a diagnosis but possibility of gout or pseudogout is high in you case. Diagnosis can only be confirmed after examination of the fluid under the polarizing microscope.
Other possibilities are injury,bunion,stress fracture,arthritis, bursitis(an inflammation of the fluid filled sacs that protect the toe joints), arthritis-related enthesitis(Inflammation of the entheses due to arthritis) ,lupus and systemic diseases like kidney and heart failure.
Buldging disc will cause pain throughout the course of the nerve that is being compressed and not just at on epoint.
I sincerely advise you to consult a podiatrist and discuss these possibilities with him so as to reach a confirmatory diagnosis.Investigations like serum creatinine,uric acid,x-ray foot and blood tests are needed to confirm a diagnosis.
Hope it helps.Take care and pls do keep us posted if you have any additional queries.