It depends on the allergen you are being treated for.
Airborn allergens are best treated by shots. The nurses do many shots a day and are very good at what they do. I barely feel the shot most of the time. sometimes it stings a little. The treatment isn't as bad as it sounds.
Some ingested allergens can be treated by small doses of the allgen taken orally under the carefull watchfull watch of a doctor and their staff.
Some doctors use a sublingual treatment for all allergens. I have not read anything truly good about the effectiveness of this treatment.
There is research being done on treatment for peanut and milk allergies. If you are concerned about this, find a doctor that is participating in the research. There is substancial history supporting safe and effective use of this type of treatment. The method has been used sucessfully with drugs allergies for years.
Desensitization is usually with sub cutaneous shots. But sublingual therapy is also being adopted. In allergic testing the severity of the allergic reaction is tested and based on this the therapy is planned. The dilution of the agent used and the course of therapy are planned according to the severity and with adequate monitoring the person is desensitized.
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