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Non-Stop Throbbing in the head

My father (born and raised in India) is 71 years old and has been living in the United States for more than 40 years. He has high blood pressure and type 2 Diabetes. He has been suffering from an Unknown Medical Condition since 2007. His symptoms have included: Shortness of breath since July of 2007, even with minimal activity and a 24 hour non-stop throbbing accompanied with sometimes pain and swelling in his head, mainly on the left side (from September 2007).

The following tests were conducted to diagnose the throbbing in his head, none of them were conclusive:

• He was sent to a Neurologist. The Neurologist thought that it could be “Temporal Arteritis”. He ordered for blood tests “SED rate and C-Reactive Protein” every week for 5 weeks. These results were normal. He also ordered MRI and MRA of his head to make sure he does not have an Aneurysm. The MRI, MRA and regular CT scan of his head did not show any problems. The Neurologist recently told him that he may have a dural AVM, but it will only be confirmed, if he gets an angiogram of his head.

He is presently on the following medications:

• Glimepiride – 2 mg once day (for BS)
• Coreg – 25 mg twice a day (for BP)
• Cozaar – 50 mg once a day ((for BP)
• Januvia – 100 mg once a day (for BS)
• Metformin ER – 500 mg twice a day (for BS)
• Lipitor – 10 mg once a day (for Cholesterol)
• Amitriptylin – 10 mg once a day (for relaxation)

*BS – Blood Sugar
*BP – Blood Pressure

He’s been to a numerous amounts of doctors since then, and they have no conclusive answer. Obviously, an angiogram of the head is rather invasive, and we’re just looking for possible answers, possible diseases, infections, or anything to diagnose this mystery.
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