Aa
A
A
A
Close
Weight Loss Alternatives Community
7.24k Members
Avatar universal

Oral HCG double blind study

In case anyone is interested...


Utility of an oral formulation of hCG for obesity treatment: A Double-Blind study


Authors:

Daniel O. Belluscio MD
Leonor E. Ripamonte MD

Additional information can be requested at:
Dr. Daniel Belluscio
The oral hCG Research Clinic
Summary:

To assess the validity of the hypothesis that hCG (Human Choriogonadotropin) mobilizes fat from deposits of fat, the authors designed a Double Blind Study performed on obese volunteers.

The result of this study suggests that oral administration of hCG , in the course of a Very-Low-Calorie Diet (VLCD), significantly decreases the total amount of subcutaneous body fat from specific deposits of fat. Since an increased amount of body fat is responsible for the genesis and maintenance of obesity, the authors suggest that hCG may be useful for obesity treatment.

Both Placebo and hCG-treated patients were managed with the same Very Low Calorie Diet. hCG-treated volunteers lost more body fat than their Placebo counterparts.

Keywords: Obesity, obesidad, weight gain, weight loss, adipose tissue, fat, tejido graso, grasa, dieta, dietas, ganancia de peso, hipercolesterolemia, hypercholesterolemia, food, weight regain, obesity drugs, anti-obesity, alimentacion, BMI.

Introduction.
About forty years ago, a Physician published in the publication The Lancet, an unusual approach to the treatment of obesity (33,34). It consisted in the administration of small amounts of hCG (Human Choriogonadotropin), a substance secreted by the human placenta, to obese patients who were also put on a Very Low Calorie Diet (500 Kcal/day). He stated that obese individuals lost fat from fat deposits, felt better during treatment and improved the shape of their bodies.

The method was used, and misused, for about twenty years, until a series of tests (blind and open) led to the conclusion that this approach to obesity rendered the same results concerning weight loss both in Placebo and hCG-treated patients. (2,7, 14,15, 26, 32, 35,36,41).

Recent investigations demonstrate conclusively that it is possible to lose a great amount of weight at the expense of lean (instead of fat) tissue. Consequently, an important issue in any weight reduction program is knowing whether patients are losing lean body mass instead of fat.

Since no assessment of the fat to lean weight loss ratio was performed in those previous studies and, in our experience hCG has a metabolic action on fat masses, we have designed a new Research Protocol comprising parameters not included in previous studies.

Materials and methods for the study
All patients were Caucasic, ages ranging from 23 to 73 y.o (group P: 41 ± 13; group G1: 42 ± 12; group G2: 41 ± 14), a range of heights of 1,62 cm. to 1,81 cm., and overweight ranging from 25 to 49,9 on BMI Tables.

Since there were no published reports on the oral use of hCG, group G2 was administered twice the dose of G1, to assess if hCG concentration may affect obtained results.

The pharmacist prepared two types of vials: one containing saline solution (Na Cl 0,9% w/v), and the other containing a diluted and buffered solution of standardized hCG .

Vials were randomly labeled, each number corresponding to a patient. The pharmacist kept the codes in a sealed envelope. They were opened after completing the protocol.
To obtain a complete copy of the procedure please email your request at ***@****. You must be a Licensed Healthcare Professional to get a copy.
      (I DIDN'T EMAIL THIS ADDRESS. I WAS ON THE WEBSITE, HAD TROUBLE PRINTING SOMETHING. cONTACTED THEM AND THEY EMAILED ME THE ENTIRE PROCEDURE INSTEAD)

20 Responses
Avatar universal
Avatar universal
Subcutaneous adipose tissue reduction could be accomplished by lipogenesis inhibition at the level of the fat cell membrane (see : adipose tissue metabolism). Since administered hCG acumulates at the hypothalamic region, we speculated that hCG metabolic actions could be exerted through the release of a lipolytic substance located in that area.

What is the significance of this finding within the context of obesity?

Adipose tissue reduction should be the goal in any weight reduction program, rather than appetite or anxiety reduction. This study suggests that the oral use of hCG helps to mobilize fat from certain fat deposits, but poses several as yet unsolved questions:
Why was circumference reduction similar in both groups while the hCG treated group significantly decreased the amount of subcutaneous body fat? Our hypothesis is that they gained total body water and/or lean mass.
Why did hCG treated volunteers not lose more weight despite a significant reduction in subcutaneous fat?. We have no explanation for these data.
In our opinion, further studies should be performed to ascertain the unresolved issues in this preliminary report.

We followed patients for a 8 mo. following treatment. A preliminary conclusion can be drawn: At 8 mo. post-treatment, more of the hCG-treated patients maintained their weight reduction that their placebo-treated counterparts (p< 0.003).

No side effects were reported with the oral use of hCG.

We suspect that only a fraction of hCG is absorbed, and this fraction might be responsible for the metabolic activity we have observed in our patients.

Since hCG contains IR beta-endorphin (17), we hypothesize that the improvement in our volunteers' daily mood might be related to ß-endorphinergic activity at hypothalamic level. When hCG-treated volunteers where compared to the placebo-treated group regarding their mood during the treatment, the former were less irritable, felt in a better mood throughout the treatment, and their irritability responses were significantly decreased.

According to previous studies, subcutaneous adipose tissue reduction could be accomplished by an inhibition of lipogenesis at the level of the adipocyte membrane (see : adipose tissue metabolism). Since administered hCG accumulates at the hypothalamic region, we speculated that hCG metabolic actions could be exerted through the release of a lipolytic substance located in that area. hCG has no direct action upon fat cells.
As a result of accelerated subcutaneous fat mobilization, body contour shows a more pleasant aesthetic appearance.  

Graphics...   Photographic documentation...  

Avatar universal
Test Parameters
Test parameters are as follows:
A. Laboratory blood tests before (day 0) and after the study.
B. Subcutaneous weekly fat content assessments performed on different body areas (Skinfold thickness test), using a Lange (Cambridge,Mass) skinfold Caliper
Tricipital region
Anterior axillary line
Subscapular
Suprailiac
Lateral thoracic region
Supraumbilical region
Infraumbilical region
Inner thigh, 8 cm. below the pubic area.
Areas above and below the patella.
C. Body Impedance, assessed with a Maltron (UK) portable device.
D. Subcutaneous fat on different body areas , assessed by a portable Ultrasound device (Keiko Ind., Japan).
Selected areas were:
Tricipital region
Inner thigh, 8 cm. below the pubic area.
Areas above and below the patella.
E. Body circumference reduction in the course of the study. The following areas were measured with a metric tape measure:
Wrist
Chest
Waist
Abdominal region (at the level of the navel)
Hips (maximum circumference)
Thighs (8 cm. below the pubic line)
Suprapatellar border
Ankle
F. Irritability score during the treatment period, assessed through answers to a questionnaire sent to the volunteers weekly.

Assessments B,C,D and E were performed by the same observer throughout the study period, thus avoiding differences between individuals.
Study period.
The study period lasted five weeks. At the end of the study, the envelope containing the codes for every patient were opened, and data collected were submitted to statistical variance and regression analysis.
Data analysis.
For data analysis the following procedures were performed:
Data were input into a database, filed in ASCII format.
Analyses of frequency, mean, standard deviations, and standard errors.
Variance, covariance and multiple regression analyses.
Study results.
I. Skinfold thickness - Drug Concentrations

When comparing the obtained results before and after the study period, significant differences between Placebo and hCG treated volunteers were observed:
For Dose 1:
1.Supraumbilical skinfold: F=2.24 p< 0.05
For dose 2:
1. Supraumbilical skinfold: F=2.43 p<0.05
2. Infraumbilical fold: F= 8.99 p< 0.0001
3. Internal aspect of thighs: F=3.33 p< 0.01
4. Subscapular: F=4.22 p< 0.002
Graphics...   Photographic documentation...  

II. Skinfold thickness- Groups comparison
From the groups that received the active component, five volunteers did not complete the five weeks course of treatment, and three failed to attend at least one control session: Total eight patients.
Of the group that received the placebo, three patients did not complete the last two controls, and two failed to attend the last one. Total : 5 cases.
Analysis of data collected shows significant differences in the results of the following skinfold thickness tests between placebo and hCG- treated subjects:
Subscapular region: p< 0.01
Supraumbilical: p< 0.04
Infraumbilical: p< 0.004
Internal aspect of thighs: p<0.002
Suprapatellar: p< 0.005
Tricipital: p< 0.08
Axillary anterior line: p<0.08
III. Ultrasound assessment
Ultrasound evaluations of subcutaneous adipose tissue from different groups revealed the following data:
Inner thigh: p< 0.08
Suprapatellar region: p< 0.08.
Graphics...   Photographic documentation...  

IV.Weight loss, total fat and lean mass, impedanciomethry.
Impedance and body circumference measures revealed no statistically significant differences in weight loss, total fat and lean mass.
V. Mood behavior in the course of the treatment.
Study volunteers answered a questionnaire concerning their mood during the treatment period. The following statistical differences were observed between the responses received from hCG and Placebo-treated Groups:
hCG-treated patients felt in a better the treatment: p < 0.03 at the 3rd. treatment week and p < 0.01 at the 5th.
Sleep quality, regarding amount of hours and quality was improved : p < 0.06, at the 3rd. week of treatment.
In a regular discussion with any member of the family they accepted more openly pt differences on opinions reagrding the subject discussed: p< 0.01, at the 5th. treatment week.
They were less irritable: p<0.001 at the 4th. treatment week.
They were better able to cope when things did not go as they expected: p<0.05.
They were less prone to quarrel for petty reasons: p<0.05.
They were less prone to episodes of irritability : p< 0.005 at the 4th. week.
Graphics...
Discussion and conclusions
The hCG protocol for the treatment of obesity has been loved and hated for the last 40 years. In 1974, the FDA banned the use of hCG in the US based on a series of studies maintaining that weight loss was similar both in the Placebo and hCG-treated groups. Our study corroborates those previous findings.( 2,7, 14,15, 26, 32, 35,36,41).

However, all the the reports on the subject of hCG and obesity are not negative: studies from Asher WL, Harper HW, Bradley P., Bradley P., Gusman HA, Komarnicka R, et al., Vallini A, et al, Veilleux H, et al., suggest that hCG exerts a lipid-mobilizing action.

Unfortunately, previous studies based their conclusions on the fact that weight loss was similar both in hCG and Placebo treated patients. But weight on a scale is only one of the tools suitable to describe obesity: A more accurate description recently coined is that obesity is the accumulation of body fat above predefined standards.

If obesity can be defined as an excess of body fat, then it follows that any pharmacological intervention on the disease should assess whether the drug in question can mobilize fat from fat deposits.

According to our preliminary study, hCG oral administration decreases the amount of body fat from certain body regions to a statistically significant level. This is the first study published on the oral use of hCG for the treatment of obesity.

This hCG metabolic action has been previously suggested by the studies of Fleigelman R, Fried GH., Scaffidi V., Veilleux H, et al., Yanagihara Y. , Yanagihara Y., Yanagihara Y..

Therefore, it seems that hCG can accelerate fat mobilization from certain fat deposits in the course of a weight reduction program including a Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD).

Avatar universal
This is not the copy of the entire procedure, just the article with conclusions.
Avatar universal
"No side effects were reported with the oral use of hCG".
  NOT INJECTION ??

"hCG has no direct action upon fat cells".

HMMM..MY DIET DOES....

where did this come from...?? link please...thank you.



* "The oral hCG Research Clinic"
pill form does not work !!
and the DR'S you listed all work there..or for them..remember atkins had so called 'studies' and later admitted the diet was a scam...
Ive read over & over..oral HCG in no way works....and im not jumping on this article..just saying...any comment ??
Avatar universal
Fightu, I don't know why I bother with you. I suppose the teacher in me wishes to finally reach that soft spot you call a brain, and shed some light into a dark and dusty place.
Oral, doesn't necessarily mean pill form. I actually commented on this before, about the only case studies I have on hand that show proven results thus far are the injections and sub-lingual ( means orally under the tongue just in case you didn't know that either)

If you actually took the time to read her very courteous post , you would have read that the patients in this study were not given pills.
"The pharmacist prepared two types of vials: one containing saline solution (Na Cl 0,9% w/v), and the other containing a diluted and buffered solution of standardized hCG."

Not a pill.  Again fightu, you show your half hearted uneducated face to the world.

Onvibrate, you were very kind to type that out for the posters.
Avatar universal
OK for those who watch my stalker follow me from post to post............

people..do not jump to listen to her..she makes it seem like shes knows this stuff for a fact...theres no proof at all...ZERO and  she dont evne take it..it could wreck you haveing a baby later in life........and cause birth defects for starters...and theres more...want more  thruth..just ask me..shes here for some odd reason...it does not seem to be $$ (unless Kevein Trudeau) Is paying her...seems odd...i think she flunked med school......so hangs her to 'offer' 'advice' im here for truh and to help people..shes a 'pusher' ask your self why...and she repplys to every single post !! even with nothing to say..like well..ok go see your doctor..very,very weird...to each there own..but people..impress me........use ya head...think about it..if it was that simple..come on...and to 'trick' your body into thinking your pregant is terrible !
FACT ! you women know whatr hormones can do now..try injecting HCG from the urine of a prgant girl...then see..and I even seen her down play ,and act dumb on wHAT THE TRUE side affects are..if you want to know..ask me.,.or email me at ***@**** LUCK TO YOU.. and this is for my stalker...THAT GIRL OVER ..SOMEWHERE'

listen ok......you are NOT doctor...you are NOT an expert...you are NOT here to serve as 1...your a hacg pedler & pusher..mind your bizz...you sit here all day and reply to every single post..and lie to everyone..do you tell them about the real side afects..of 'tricking' your body into thinking its pregant..and how this can cause birth defects ? and others ?? wake up..get off my back..do not post just because I did..say ya fake truth..and let me be..this has gone far enough...I do wish you you would stop playing doctor..peoples health is at stake..you oie..lie..& lie..and tell half truth...and yet have shown 1 shred of proof....not 1.oh and its not a rule...you do not have to jump on each and every post..once again...your not here to be the 'expert'  there is ZERO truth nor facts to your dream of HCG..which is as follows.....
eat very little..because injecting HCG will 'trick' your fat cells into releaseing fat.. this is un-proven...so stupid Its hard not to laugh..if this where true it would be the biggest find in history.......and someonje would be makeing $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ of it...go away with your scams..and HCG pushing..show some proof..Ill buy you 6 months worth..people..wake up..shes not a DOCTOR..nor the room expert..shes what we call a 'WANNA' BEI GOT $1,000 SAYS SHE  SHOWS NO PROOF
Avatar universal
vibrate forgot to tell you ger so called 'proof' is a joke..the 2 doctors run a clinic in which they sell products..lol

and look at the dates of studies..1969 ,1973..they use this as proof..lol
Avatar universal
An article in JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) stated:

"No convincing scientific evidence exists that human chorionic gonadotropin has any pharmacologic effect in weight reduction. Hence, claims to the public that such effects do occur are a misrepresentation of the scientific facts."
FDA requires all labeling and advertising of HCG to state that it has not been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of obesity. The ads must also state that HCG is not approved by FDA as safe and effective in treatment of obesity of weight control.
Avatar universal
to my above post...and this 1..

HCG (Generic name: Human chorionic gonadotropin)

Pregnyl by Organon. 5,000 to 20,000 IU (International Units) per 10 cc vials. This drug is not a steroid but it is widely used in athletics today. HCG is a natural protein hormone secreted by the human placenta and purified form the urine of pregnant women. This hormone is not a natural male hormone but mimics the natural hormone LH (Luetinising Hormone) almost identically. This LH stimulates the production of testosterone by the testis in males. Thus HCG sends the same message and results in increased testosterone production by the testis due to HCG’s effect on the leydig cells of the testis. not sure how this would affect fat cells ? nor weight loss ? Normally this HCG is used to treat women with certain ovarian disorders and it is used to stimulate the testis of men who may be hypogonadal. Athletes use HCG to increase the body’s own natural production of testosterone which is often depressed by long term steroid use. Also when steroids are used in high dosages they can cause false signals to the hypothalamus that results in a depressed signal to the testicles. Over a period of weeks of this depressed signal the testicles ability to respond to any signal from the pituitary becomes very weak, which results in testicular atrophy. again...whats this got to do with fat loss ?To avoid this athletes will use HCG to keep an artificial signal going to the testis and preventing testicular atrophy. When administered, HGC raises serum testosterone very quickly. A rise in testosterone firs appears in about two hours after injecting HCG. The second peak occurs about two to four days later.

HCG therapy has been found to be very effective in the prevention of testicular atrophy and to use the body’s own biochemical stimulating mechanisms to increase plasma testosterone level during training. Some steroid users find that they have some of their best strength and size gains while using HCG in conjunction with the steroids. This may wee be due to the facts that the body has high level of natural androgens as well as the artificial steroid hormones at that time.

The optimal dosage for an athlete using HCG has never been established, but it is thought that a single shot of 1000 to 2000 IU per week will get the desired results. Cycles on the HCG should be kept down to three weeks at a time with an off cycle of at least a month in between. For example, one might use the HCG for two to three weeks in the middle of a cycle, and for two or three weeks at the end of a cycle. It has been speculated that the prolonged use of HCG could repress the body’s own production of gonadotropins permanently. This is why the short cycles are the best way to go.

The side effects from HCG use include gynecomastia, water retention, and an increase in sex drive, mood alterations, headaches, and high blood pressure. HCG raises androgen levels in males by up to 400% but it also raises estrogen levels dramatically as well. This is why it can cause a real case of gynecomastia if dosages get too elevated for that person. Another side effect seen from HCG use is morning sickness (nausea and vomiting). There have been no cases of overdose complications with the use of HCG nor have there been any associated carcinomas, liver or renal impairment. HCG was at one point looked at to see if it could carry the AIDS virus, due to the fact that it is biologically active, but the latest word is that this could not be possible in any way. So we see how HCG be used by athletes to avoid some of the problems associated with abruptly stopping a steroid cycle. This product is also not picked up on steroid tests, so some athletes use it to keep androgen levels high before a contest that has drug testing. HCG must be refergerated after it is mixed together, and it then has a life of about 10 weeks. It is taken intramuscularly only; this drug is often available by order of a physician if you show symptoms of hypogonadism. It is hard to find on the black market.
now I know most will say this is big athletes...but that's not true..nor change the facts about this product..with all do respect...after 25 people..(3 top pro athletes) many many reports..books..info...me my self..would 100% not take this..and in no way do I think it can help with weight loss....with all due respect..till I see solid proof Im wrong..that's my opinon..so no yelling at me..lol
__________________
"The Lord is on my side;I have no fear." -psalm 118:6[/b]
Avatar universal
Thank you That girl. Haven't been online since this post since I don't live on this website, but I am always glad to read what you have to say. You're always articulate and don't ever accuse other people of doing the exact things that you yourself are the one doing. You know what you're talking about!!!
I like how this study references the flawed 70's studies that everyone pulls out to prove that hCG doesn't work. One Dr.(?) on some diet scam page "reported" that it doesn't work, and that was the whole of his proof. He sited those old studies, and there was no link anywhere on page to ask him anything, no way to get ahold of him, no link to any copies of his study(?). NOTHING. He is probably owner of a weight loss clinic, selling drugs that don't work, or has stock in Slimfast. Who knows! Anyway, keep up the good work anyway. We adore reading your cleverness!!

Proverbs 3:34
1 Timothy 6:4-5
Psalms 12:3
Proverbs 21:23-24 and 11
1 Corinth.1:19
Romans 1:22
2 Timothy 4:3
Romans 8:19
Romans 6:23
Avatar universal
Onvibrate,
You are very welcome. I was asked to come here (while I was on vacation, at home, from work) by someone who frequents this forum (a friend of mine) and told me about fightu (how juvenile he is). This person asked that I at least give the clinical interpretations, not biased rhetoric. I am here for a brief period, while my time is more available. Hopefully, to ensure that you have all the facts, as well as support those who are seeing the results for themselves, and don't need to worry about some idiot screaming across the forums.

As for fightu..I must say that your ego, to think that I am stalking you, is outstanding. I do not post just to you, but I guess you chose not to read any other posts but your own. Also, you are an antagonistic ass.
I do not sell or profit from hCG in any way. As for what I do for a living, that is none of your business. However, I will say, that I know for a fact, my qualifications out rank yours, by far.  Grammar and spelling alone denotes that.

Oh and For the record, I did not flunk out of medical school. I chose to keep my identity private, primarily because of people like you.
You do not know who I am. To presume otherwise, shows your profound ignorance.

Everyone here knows it. So why don't *you* just go away, and leave these people alone. You cannot make one single post without horrible accusations, or calling people names. You have yet to make a clear point on any level, and resort to childish antics to get attention.

First you wrote in every single post "URINE URINE" and when that fell through you went on to another idiotic claim. Again, I discredited you. Now your grasping on to a ludicrous falsehood that it causes birth defects just by taking it, when it fact hCG is used predominantly in fertility clinics to enable women across the globe to conceive. Yes, there are some risks, but pregnant women are not allowed to take it for that reason. There are tests and a rigorous medical screening before you are even considered for treatment.  I do not condone any Internet based company who will sell this product otherwise. (Which most steroid abusers order from to get their fix.)

Truly, you are just an ass. Shoo fly...
Avatar universal
the 'study' you posted is a joke.its from a guy who sells the stuff..with no proof at all.....but nice try..as i said...I  CHALLENGE ANY ONE TO SHOW ME PROOF ,FROM A NON SELLING WEBSITE..OR SO CALLED 'REPORT' OR STUDY......IVE BEEN WAITING FOR 2 MONTHS...............
Avatar universal
why do you chose to ignore every thing ..i post facts..why is it only your 'facts' are correct..and  as I said..who made you the pro ? who told you to reply to everyones post as some kind of expert ??
Avatar universal
so glad that you were on this forum at the same short time that i am! i'm only here because i googled orathin to find every place that i could post and tell people that it wasn't hCG. hate it when companies scam people out of money, especially when its so subtle. google brought me here. and i started this particular post, like you said 6/27, just for the posters who are interested. wasn't trying to prove anything to anyone. people can think for themselves. you apparently have caused some whining because your posts are making a difference and others now cannot be the self-proclaimed "pro" or the "expert" anymore. you know, the one who replies to EVERY SINGLE post, even the ones where they are specially asked not to! i get such a kick out of it. its been a pleasure, that girl!
Avatar universal
im still waiting for proof.......................
Avatar universal
If you want proof...check out some of the testimonials or some of the hcg forums (see yahoo groups) and see the results that people that are actually using hcg are having. There are hundreds of people in these forums and they are actual users of the hcg protocol who swear by the results they are having. Maybe not being so confrontational might help too...
239357 tn?1240157210
As for "Your Proof" fightu go to w.hcgdietinfo ******* over to the left there is a list under "Popular" click on Dr.Simeons "Pounds & Inches" read,read,read. This is the doctor who researched the hCG protocol, what it is, what it does, why it does what it does, & why you loose weight on this protocol, not why it affects the "Adipose" the only affect it has on the fat is shrinkage. The affect hCG has, is on the Hypothalamus
I've run into you before & you really should read before you get on here slinging mud around, because you really don't know what you're talking about and you're looking a little stupid. And about the FDA..... give me a break you talk about people doing this for the money, they are @ the top of the list,do you relize that hCG is one of, if not the only prescription out there that has a stipulation like "this drug cannot be used for weight loss" that is obsured! And it's also one of the few that is a natural "hormone" unlike most of the drugs they stamp with their approval. That girl, Thanks!
239357 tn?1240157210
Oral hCG does not work.......it HAS to go intramuscular to be able to go into the blood stream. That's all she wrote.
Avatar universal
If hCG caused birth defects as you claim, it would never be used in fertility treatments, idiot. Also: hCG when used in fertility treatments is used at a dose of 10,000 IUs! The hCG protocol uses 1/80th of that strength. That's right -- one eightieth, not eighty percent. That means it takes eighty uses of that small dose to equal one mega dose used in fertility treatments.

Now, *******, if someone is pregnant and uses hCG it can cause birth defects, of course. But the protocol is forbidden during pregnancy anyhow.

I do not know what hornet flew up your *** to get you to post such horribly mis-spelled and ignorant comnents. I do know that the FDA works for the people that pay their bills -- the pharmaceutical companies. Oh, and ever hear of a drug treatment for obesity called "phen-phen"? Phentramine was approved as "safe" by the FDA, and it not only killed people, it also caused permanent heart and lung damage.

So, if you choose to remain ignorant and belligerant (even your name is "fightu")... so be it. But spew your ignorant hatred somewhere else.

Find something to hate for a good reason; take a look at the garbage that's approved as "safe" drugs by the FDA every year that kills people and disables them for life. Note: the hCG protocol has never done the harm to bodies -- maiming and killing people -- as the "safe" gastric bypass, phen-phen, or a myriad of horrible options provided by the FDA.  
Have an Answer?
Top Healthy Living Answerers
Avatar universal
Arlington, VA
Learn About Top Answerers
Didn't find the answer you were looking for?
Ask a question
Popular Resources
14 super-healthy foods that are worth the hype
Small changes make a big impact with these easy ways to cut hundreds of calories a day.
Forget the fountain of youth – try flossing instead! Here are 11 surprising ways to live longer.
From STD tests to mammograms, find out which screening tests you need - and when to get them.
Tips and moves to ease backaches
Here are 12 simple – and fun! – ways to boost your brainpower.