The kidneys normally remove excess potassium from the body. Most cases of hyperkalemia are caused by disorders that reduce the kidneys' ability to get rid of potassium.
Causes of hyperkalemia include
Acute kidney failure
Chronic kidney failure
Higher than normal levels of CO2 may be due to:
The following conditions may also alter bicarbonate levels:
Renal (kidney) tubular acidosis; distal
Renal (kidney) tubular acidosis; proximal
Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common cause of hypercalcemia (high calcium). It is due to excess PTH release by the parathyroid glands. This excess occurs due to an enlargement of one or more of the parathyroid glands, or a growth (usually not cancer) on one of the glands.
Other medical conditions can also cause hypercalcemia:
Adrenal gland failure
Calcium excess in the diet
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
Medications such as lithium and thiazide diuretics (water pills)
Some cancerous tumours
Vitamin D excess